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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575
Publisher: The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan

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Tetsu-to-Hagané Advance Publication

Interaction Coefficients of Mo, B, Ni, Ti and Nb with Sn in Molten Fe-18mass%Cr Alloy

Koga Hori, Kengo Kato, Hideki Ono

Abstract

Increasing the utilization of steel scrap is strongly required for reducing CO2 emission in iron- and steel-making processes. In steel scrap recycling, the content of tramp elements in steel (such as copper and tin) inevitably increases. Accordingly, it is important to understand the thermodynamic characteristics of relevance to the accumulation of tramp elements in molten steel. The values of the interaction coefficients of Mo, B, Ni, Ti, and Nb with Sn in molten iron were reported previously. However, little is known about the interaction coefficients of alloying elements with tramp elements in molten high-chromium steel. In this work, the interaction coefficients of Mo, B, Ni, Ti, and Nb with Sn in the molten Fe–18mass%Cr alloy were measured at 1873 K by a chemical equilibration technique that uses the liquid immiscibility of the Fe–18mass%Cr alloy and Ag, yielding the following results:

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Interaction Coefficients of Mo, B, Ni, Ti and Nb with Sn in Molten Fe-18mass%Cr Alloy

Cold Spot Joining of Galvannealed DP 780 MPa Steel Sheets

Takumi Aibara, Yoshiaki Morisada, Kohsaku Ushioda, Masayoshi Kamai, Takaaki Miyauchi, Shinichi Hasegawa, Hidetoshi Fujii

Abstract

The microstructural evolution and tensile properties of joints fabricated by the newly developed cold spot joining (CSJ) method were investigated using galvannealed DP 780 MPa steel sheet. The novel solid-state joining method called CSJ is proved to make the joining interface plastically deformed under high pressure and appropriate current by expelling Zn-Fe coated layer, resulting in the sound joints with strong interface. Joints exploiting CSJ method were made focusing on the effects of the pressing speed and current level. Microstructural observations of the joints revealed that the lower pressing speed increases the interface temperature. In addition, the increase in the current also increases the interface temperature. The increase in the interface temperature has a positive effect in terms of expelling Zn-Fe coated layer. The positive effect of increasing current is more significant than that of decreasing the pressing speed. The increase in temperature near the interface by increasing current promotes the removal of the Zn-Fe coating layer, resulting in plastic deformation near the joining interface. Appropriate pressure and current settings can facilitate the sound spot joints with enough tensile strength. Both tensile-shear and cross-tension tests have confirmed a plug failure in the base material region.

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Cold Spot Joining of Galvannealed DP 780 MPa Steel Sheets

Gas Pressure Measurement Beneath of Oxide Scale during High-temperature Oxidation of Steel

Ryoto Okumura, Yuto Adachi, Yasumitsu Kondo

Abstract

Blistering occurs when oxide scale swells during oxidation at steel high temperatures.Blistered scale causes surface defects when steels are rolled. An assumption has been proposed that the pressure of CO and CO2 gas generation beneath the scale causes blisters. This study the qualitative measurements of the gas pressure beneath the oxide scale were tried.A stainless tube was set in order to connect to the beneath the scale during oxidation.Positive pressures were confirmed beneath oxide scale. Also gas permeability through FeO mono-layer scale was obtained.

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Gas Pressure Measurement Beneath of Oxide Scale during High-temperature Oxidation of Steel

Strain and Magnetic Field Changes in Vibration of Devices Attached Iron Alloys with Large Magnetostriction

Masaki Chiba, Kensuke Misawa, Hisanori Tanimoto, Masayoshi Kumagai, Shigeo Sato, Toru Kawamata, Shigeru Suzuki

Abstract

To understand the mechanism of vibration energy harvesting using magnetostrictive Fe-Ga alloys, the dynamic strains at different locations of a U-shaped device during vibration were simulated. In the simulations, the previous results for location-dependent strain in the vibration experiments were fitted with trigonometric functions. The results show that the amplitude and phase of the strain vary with location, and that the electromagnetic force is generated at different locations. Since magnetic induction is thought to occur due to an external magnetic field, the magnetic domain structure near the cube orientation of Fe-Ga alloy single crystals was observed using a Kerr effect microscope. As a result, Bloch magnetic domain structures with different contrasts of brightness and darkness were observed depending on the applied magnetic field. It was shown that striped magnetic domains were dominant when the applied magnetic field was small, while lancet magnetic domains oriented to the magnetic field appeared with transverse straight supplementary domains as a magnetic domain under a saturated magnetic field. The domain patterns in one direction magnetic fields were not necessarily the same as those observed in the opposite direction. This indicates that Fe-Ga alloy single crystals are used as a core for vibrational energy harvesting. Also, the motion of magnetic walls is thought to play an important role in the vibrational properties of the material, and inhomogeneous elastic strain associated with magnetic domains evolves microscopically in single crystals.

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Strain and Magnetic Field Changes in Vibration of Devices Attached Iron Alloys with Large Magnetostriction

A Method for the Analysis of Chromium at Sub-μg L−1 Level Using a Portable Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

Rihoko Miyazaki, Kosei Oikawa, Shinsuke Kunimura

Abstract

In this study, total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectra of dry residues of 10 μL, 100 µL, 200 µL, and 400 μL droplets of a solution containing 10 μg L−1 of Cr on hydrophobic film coated sample holders were measured by a portable TXRF spectrometer, and these spectra were compared. The net intensity of the Cr Kα peak per the concentration of Cr in the sample solution (counts / μg L−1) increased with an increase in the volume of a droplet of the sample solution. This was because the mass of Cr in the dry residue increased with an increase in the volume of a droplet of the sample solution. This enhancement in the net intensity of the Cr Kα peak per the concentration of Cr led to a significant improvement in the detection limit expressed as the concentration of Cr. Detection limits for Cr obtained from the measurements of the dry residues of 10 μL, 100 µL, 200 µL, and 400 μL droplets of the sample solution were 2.1 μg L−1, 0.30 μg L−1, 0.13 μg L−1, and 0.09 μg L−1, respectively. Measuring the dry residue of a large volume droplet of a water sample would be useful for the analysis of trace elements in the sample.

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A Method for the Analysis of Chromium at Sub-μg L−1 Level Using a Portable Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

Effective Utilization Method for Surface Tension Based Coal Blending Technique –Effect of Coal Fluidity–

Daisuke Igawa, Yusuke Dohi, Takashi Matsui, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Kiyoshi Fukada, Hiroyuki Sumi, Izumi Shimoyama

Abstract

In our previous paper, a new measurement method for the coal adhesion property called “surface tension of semi-coke” was devised. The surface tension of a semi-coke sample obtained by heat treatment of a coal sample at 500°C was measured as a unique adhesion property. Conventionally, it has been thought that adhesion is dominant under a low MF (Gieseler maximum fluidity) condition. Moreover, it is important for effective coal utilization to develop a technique that enables production of high strength coke under low MF conditions, which has been thought to deteriorate coke strength. However, in the previous paper, the effect of surface tension on coke strength was investigated only under a single MF condition without changing the level of MF.

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Effective Utilization Method for Surface Tension Based Coal Blending Technique –Effect of Coal Fluidity–

Estimation of True Hardness and Quantitative Evaluation of Auto-Tempering in As-Quenched Martensitic Steels

Osamu Idohara, Youhei Hiyama, Yoshitaka Misaka, Setsuo Takaki, Toshihiro Tsuchiyama

Abstract

The hardness of martensitic steels with high Ms temperatures is reduced by auto-tempering after transformation, therefore the true hardness of martensite with carbon in fully solid solution is not known. In this study, we investigated a method to quantitatively evaluate the true hardness of quenched martensite unaffected by auto-tempering and the effect of auto-tempering by quantitatively evaluating the degree of tempering of martensite using the diffusion area of carbon in bcc iron at temperatures below 400°C. As a result, it was clarified that the effect of auto-tempering is more pronounced in steels with an M50 temperature higher than 300°C and that the softening behavior of martensitic steels can be uniformly evaluated regardless of the carbon content if the activation energy of carbon diffusion is known. Furthermore, it was clarified that the degree of auto-tempering can be quantitatively evaluated by calculating the integral diffusion area S (=∑Dt) below the M50 temperature during quenching.

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Estimation of True Hardness and Quantitative Evaluation of Auto-Tempering in As-Quenched Martensitic Steels

Effect of Mn Content on Hydrogen Embrittlement Resistance of Tempered Martensite in Low Alloy Steel

Shinji Yoshida, Yuji Arai, Tomohiko Omura, Ken Cho, Hiroyuki Y. Yasuda

Abstract

The effect of Mn content on hydrogen embrittlement resistance of tempered martensite in low alloy steel was investigated. The hydrogen embrittlement resistance was estimated with Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) test in aqueous environment containing hydrogen sulfide. In the DCB test, the specimens with pre-crack were prepared, the crack propagated while the specimens were exposed to aqueous environment containing hydrogen sulfide. The crack propagation route was analyzed into intergranular fracture and transgranular fracture, and intergranular fracture rate was calculated. The fracture toughness decreases from 29 MPa√m to 25 MPa√m with increasing Mn content from 0.5% to 1.5%. Then, the intergranular fracture rate increases from 26.6% to 54.4%, and the absorbed hydrogen content increases from 1.8 mass ppm to 2.3 mass ppm. The decrease of fracture toughness is probably because cohesive energy of grain boundary (2γint) decreases with increasing Mn content at the prior austenite grain boundary and increasing absorbed hydrogen.

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Effect of Mn Content on Hydrogen Embrittlement Resistance of Tempered Martensite in Low Alloy Steel

Settling of Particle in Foaming Slag

Shin-ichi Shimasaki, Shigeru Ueda, Noritaka Saito, Kenji Katoh

Abstract

In the steelmaking process, molten slag is foamed through gas injection and gas generation reactions, and molten iron droplets get mixed and trapped in the slag. A settling velocity of an iron droplet in the foaming slag are very important, because a residence time of an iron droplet in the slag is directly calculated the settling velocity. According to the previous research, the settling velocity is expected to be slower than in regular non-foaming slag. However, it has yet to be quantitatively clarified. This study measured the settling velocities of particles through a foaming liquid of glycerin-water solution. A dimensionless correlation equation for particle settling velocity in the formed liquid was proposed by conducting a dimensional analysis of the experimental data. Using the obtained equation, we have predicted the settling velocity of iron particles in the foaming slag. It was clarified that the settling velocity of iron particles is highly affected by a volume fraction of gas phase in the foaming slag. There is a certain threshold for the velocity, and the velocity abruptly became zero when it falls below that threshold.

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Settling of Particle in Foaming Slag

Agglomeration Force Exerted between Various Types of Solid-phase Oxides in Molten Steel

Katsuhiro Sasai, Takashi Morohoshi

Abstract

In this study, to elucidate the agglomeration mechanism of various inclusions in molten steel based on their interfacial chemical interactions, the agglomeration forces exerted between the solid-phase oxides of MgO, MgAl2O4, ZrO2, SiO2, and TiO2 in molten steel, in addition to those between the reference material Al2O3 have been measured directly. We experimentally verified for the first time that the agglomeration force due to the cavity bridge force in molten steel acts in a relatively stable manner between all solid-phase oxides that are difficult to wet with molten steel. Furthermore, this force decreased with increasing O concentration in molten steel, which is attributed to the interfacial activation effect caused by the adsorption of oxygen at the interface between the oxides and molten steel. The agglomeration properties of various oxide inclusions in the deoxidized molten steel were further evaluated from the perspectives of both agglomeration force and thermodynamics. Quantitative analysis indicated easy agglomeration of oxide inclusions in the order MgO < TiO2 < SiO2 < MgAl2O4 < ZrO2 < Al2O3. A comparative evaluation of the agglomeration and external forces acting on the oxide inclusions in molten steel suggests that any oxide inclusion in the deoxidized state forms cavity bridges and agglomerates and retains that state under intense molten steel flow. However, these agglomerated inclusions may separate again under a molten steel flow at a high O concentration. The extent of separation depends primarily on the type of oxide used.

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Agglomeration Force Exerted between Various Types of Solid-phase Oxides in Molten Steel

Effects of Manganese on Microstructure and Work-hardening Behavior of Low-carbon Lath Martensitic Steel

Kotaro Ueno, Rina Fujimura, Masatoshi Mitsuhara, Koutarou Hayashi, Shunji Hiwatashi, Manabu Takahashi

Abstract

Microstructures of lath martensite have been studied intensively to understand their effect on the mechanical properties of steels. It is, however, said that the relation between microstructural factors and mechanical properties has not been clarified yet. The plastic deformation behavior of fully lath martensitic steels has become important because they are applied to automobile body structures such as bumper reinforcement. It is, therefore, important to understand the microstructural factors that control the work-hardening behavior of fully martensitic steels. Although we could not clarify differences in microstructural factors when manganese (Mn) concentrations of steels are altered, the work-hardening of 8 mass%Mn martensitic steel is much higher than that of 5 mass%Mn martensitic steel. It was found using the digital image correlation (DIC) method, that the strain concentration due to the in-lath-plane slip deformation is more developed in 5 mass%Mn martensitic steel than 8 mass%Mn martensitic steel. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations revealed the existence of two types of fine twins inside laths. Long twins that are parallel to the longitude of the lath are observed both in 5 mass%Mn and 8 mass%Mn martensitic steels. Short twins that partially cross the laths, on the other hand, can only be found in 8 mass%Mn martensitic steel. Since twin boundaries are high angle boundaries, the short twins are supposed to prevent the development of in-lath-plane slip deformation. This seems to be the mechanism of higher work-hardening behavior observed in 8 mass%Mn martensitic steel.

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Effects of Manganese on Microstructure and Work-hardening Behavior of Low-carbon Lath Martensitic Steel

Applicability of a New Binder for Ferro-coke Focusing on the Permeation Behavior

Ryuichi Kobori, Takahiro Shishido, Shohei Wada, Koji Sakai, Noriyuki Okuyama

Abstract

Ferro-coke, which is produced by mixing coal and iron ore, briquetting and carbonizing, can be used in a blast furnace to greatly decrease the reducing agent ratio. To ensure the strength of ferro-coke, asphalt pitch (ASP) is used as a binder, but the supply of ASP is limited, and the development of alternative binder are required. This study investigated the application of Hyper-coal (HPC), a low-ash caking additive obtained by solvent extraction of coal, as a new binder for ferro-coke. It was found that superior ferro-coke strength could be obtained by using HPC in which insoluble solid concentration was less than 15 wt.%, to that of ASP. This threshold value was specified from the permeation tests. The permeabilities of binders were determined by measuring the permeation distance in the packed layer of coal and/or iron ore under the carbonizing conditions. HPC appeared higher permeability than ASP in the packed layer of iron ore and coal mixtures. It was considered that the excellent thermal plasticity of HPC, lower melting temperature and higher fluidity than ASP, affected higher permeation into the inter particle void especially lower temperature range before starting the reduction of iron ore, which rapidly decreased in the permeabilities of both binders due to the distortion of carbon structures. Those results suggested that HPC was superior to ASP as a binder for ferro-coke.

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Applicability of a New Binder for Ferro-coke Focusing on the Permeation Behavior

Rapid Identification of Crystal Structure of Alumina Scale on Heat-resistant Alloy

Susumu Imashuku

Abstract

Identifying a crystal structure of alumina (Al2O3) scale is critical for evaluating the performance of heat-resistant alloys because α-Al2O3 is stable and protective against high-temperature oxidation and corrosion but θ- and g-Al2O3 provide poor oxidation resistance. Conventional methods to identify crystal structures of Al2O3 scales are time-consuming. Herein, the author proposes a method to rapidly identify crystal structures of Al2O3 scales on β-NiAl by obtaining their cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra. α-, θ-, and g-Al2O3 can be identified by detecting a sharp peak at 695.8 nm and 686.3 nm, and a broad peak at around 700 nm, respectively, in CL spectra. Concentrations of α-, θ-, and g-Al2O3 scales can be determined roughly from intensities of these peaks. This method can be applied to areas ranging from the millimeter to micrometer scale, and the acquisition time for the CL spectra was less than 10 s. The results indicate that obtaining CL spectra contributes to the identification of crystal structures of Al2O3 scales on heat-resistant alloys and a reduction in time to evaluate the performance of heat-resistant alloys.

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Rapid Identification of Crystal Structure of Alumina Scale on Heat-resistant Alloy

Estimation of Flow Properties and Process Simulation on Multiphase Melts

Yoshihiko Higuchi, Shin-ichi Shimasaki, Shigeru Ueda, Noritaka Saito

Abstract

In the process of steelmaking refining, slag used in the preliminary treatment of molten iron or the converter is a multiphase melt. It contains solid particles that cannot dissolve entirely from the raw materials and gas bubbles generated through reactions, thus making it a multiphase molten material with dispersed components. The flow characteristics of the suspensions, foams, and emulsions significantly affect the separation of iron particles in the slag and the behavior of slag discharge. Multiphase melts typically behave as non-Newtonian fluids, so the evaluation, focusing on viscosity, is crucial to understanding their flow characteristics. This report reviews recent advances in slag visualization techniques for understanding the flow of multiphase molten materials. The results are as follows:

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Estimation of Flow Properties and Process Simulation on Multiphase Melts

Rupture of Thin Film of Surfactant Solution Due to Penetration of Spherical Particle

Kenji Katoh, Tatsuro Wakimoto

Abstract

We experimentally investigated the rupture conditions of a thin film of an aqueous surfactant solution when a spherical particle with a finite falling velocity penetrates the film. When the sphere passes through the film, the film wraps around the sphere, and a gas layer is maintained between the film and the spherical surface. When the velocity of the sphere is small, perforation occurs in the wrapping film below the equator of the sphere and the contact line moves along on the sphere surface. The energy instability occurs at a certain position of the contact line on the sphere surface, leading to rupture of the entire thin film. As the sphere velocity is increased, the perforation of the wrapping film occurs above the equator. In this condition, the probability of thin film rupture increases, since the perforation of the wrapping film immediately leads to rupture of the entire film. The motion of the gas between the thin film and the spherical surface was considered analytically from the balance between surface tension and viscous force. According to the result, the velocity condition above which the wrapping thin film could exist beyond the equator of the sphere was evaluated.

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Rupture of Thin Film of Surfactant Solution Due to Penetration of Spherical Particle

Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution and Generation Position of Bubbles Generated during Smelting Reduction of Iron Oxide-containing

Ko-ichiro Ohno, Taiga Eguchi, Tatsuya Kon

Abstract

Slag foaming is a phenomenon caused by the generation of CO bubbles due to the reaction between iron oxide in slag and carbon in pig iron. The purpose of this study is to explore the controlling factors of slag foaming by observing the bubble formation behavior caused by the chemical reaction between iron oxide and Fe-C alloy in slag. 0.06 g of Fe-C alloy was charged to the bottom of the BN crucible, and 6.0 g of slag (SiO2:CaO:Fe2O3 = 40:40:30) was charged on top of it. The crucible was placed in an infrared image heating furnace, and the temperature was rapidly raised to 1370°C at a rate of 1000°C/min in a N2 stream, then held for a predetermined time and rapidly cooled. After rapidly cooling, the internal structure of the sample was observed using a high-resolution X-ray CT device. The spherical equivalent volume is calculated based on the number of bubbles observed and their equivalent circle diameter, and the relationship between the volume ratio of small bubbles in the slag volume and the distance from the bottom of the crucible is calculated, and the bubble density and volume ratio are calculated. It was suggested that the value tends to increase as the distance from the bottom of the crucible increases.

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Measurement of Bubble Size Distribution and Generation Position of Bubbles Generated during Smelting Reduction of Iron Oxide-containing

Hydrodynamic Behavior of Sphere Penetrating into Water Bath Covered with Oil Layer

Satoshi Hasui, Yoshihiko Higuchi

Abstract

To meet the increasing demand for low-impurity steel products, powder top blowing has been applied to the steelmaking process. Powder reagents penetrating deeper into the molten metal lead to longer resident time and higher efficiency of refining. Many studies have been performed on the basis of cold model experiments with a single liquid phase for clarifying the penetration behavior of the particle. However, the effects of the second liquid phase have been reported little whereas molten slag often exists on the surface of molten metal in the steelmaking process.

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Hydrodynamic Behavior of Sphere Penetrating into Water Bath Covered with Oil Layer

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