Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 72 (1986), No. 9

  • Materials for Tribological Applications

    pp. 1231-1236

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  • On Line Non-destructive Evaluation of Steel Quality in Manufacturing Process

    pp. 1237-1242

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    [in Japanese]
  • Friction and Wear of Ceramics

    pp. 1243-1248

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  • The Materials on Magnetically Levitated High Speed Trains

    pp. 1249-1254

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  • Development of Logistics Technology under Low Temperature Environment

    pp. 1255-1262

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  • Analysis of Rate of Reduction of Porous Wustite Pellets with Hydrogen on the Basis of Zone-Reaction Models

    pp. 1263-1270

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    Porous wustite pellets were reduced with hydrogen at 900°C, and reduction curves, position of reaction zone and local fractional-reduction profiles were measured.
    Basic equation for the grain model was re-examined and solved as it was (unsteady numerical solution), and under quasi-steady (quasi-steady numerical one) and moreover linearization approximations (quasisteady analytical one). When kinetic parameters are selected suitably in each case, measured reduction curves and reaction zone behavior are comparatively well reproduced by the calculated results.
    When the unsteady numerical solution is calculated, reducible oxygen density is divided by M to reduce the computation time; the error at M≤2 000 is within a permissible range, although the solution most faithful to the basic equation is obtained at M=1. Comparison between the unsteady and the quasisteady numerical solutions shows that the latter is an approximate solution having rather good accuracy. The quasi-steady analytical solution is better than the others from practical viewpoint, because its computation time is the shortest and degree of agreement between the measured and the calculated results is nearly the same among the three.
  • The Influence of Bound Water and Fe (II) on the Determination of T.Fe Content in X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Iron Ore

    pp. 1271-1278

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    In X-ray fluorescence analysis of total iron (T. Fe) content in iron ore by the glass bead technique, the determination value of T.Fe content is influenced by coexistent impurities in iron ore, the loss of bound water, and the gain of oxygen in glass bead preparation. In this study, the phenomena of the loss of combined water, the gain of oxygen on ignition, and the influence of these phenomena on the analysis of T.Fe content have been investigated. The results were as follows: (1) It was experimentally confirmed that the bound water escaped from the glass bead and an iron metal was converted from a lower to a higher oxidation state, Fe(II) →Fe(III), in glass bead preparation. (2) The phenomena of (1) have an influence on FeKα intensities, that is, FeKα intensity increased in iron ore containing combined water when the combined water escaped from glass bead. On the other hand, FeKα intensity decreased in one containing Fe(II) when the gain of oxygen occurred. (3) The correction factor when the bound water escaped from the glass bead and one when iron ore sample gained oxygen were theoretically derived from the standard curve for Fe-O system sample. (4) In experiments, it was shown that it was effective to correct weight change of iron ore sample (glass bead) in fusing for the determination of T.Fe content of iron ores.
  • Gasification and Reduction of Iron Ore Coated with Carbon by Use of a Batch Type Fluidized Bed Reactor

    pp. 1279-1286

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    A new combined process of residual oil thermal cracking and iron ore reduction is under development.
    Fine iron ore is used as fluidized medium and is coated with petroleum coke in the thermal cracking process. The iron ore coated with the coke is fed to a fluidized-bed reactor where the coke is gasified with steam and oxygen to produce reducing gas, and then the iron ore is reduced with the reducing gas in another fluidized-bed reactor.
    This paper summarizes experimental results of gasification and reduction by use of a batch type fluidized-bed reactor.
    Reducing gas with high hydrogen content was generated and sulfur in the petroleum coke was effectively removed during gasification. The iron ore coated with 4wt% coke was rapidly reduced with hydrogen gas without occurence of sticking at a temperature of 900°C. The degree of reduction reached 95% in 10 min at 850°C and a pressure of 5 kg/cm2.
  • Chemical State Analysis of Sulfur in Blast-furnace Slags

    pp. 1287-1292

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    A new method for chemical state analysis of sulfur in blast-furnace slags has been developed. The outline of the procedure is as follows. A slag sample was powdered with a neutral solution containing zinc acetate for 10 min in a disk mill in order to prepare a suspension of fine slag particles without air oxidation. The suspension was filtered and then the zinc sulfide on the filter was dissolved with acetic acid and standard iodine solution. Then, excess iodine was titrated with standard thiosulfate solution to deter mine the amount of sulfide (MS). Formalin and acetic acid were added to, the filtrate of the suspension and then it was titrated with standard iodine solution to determine the amount of thiosulfate (MS2O3). The filtrate was heated after the addition of hydrochloric acid and zinc, and then the amount of sulfate (MSO4) was determined by a barium sulfate gravimetric method.
    This proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of states of sulfur in slags. The coefficients of variations of MS(0.49% S), MS2O3(0.092% S) and MSO4(0.072% S) were 1.54%, 2.63 %, and 3.82%, respectively, The sum total of the sulfur occurring in various states, (S, MS, MS2O3, MSO4) in blast-furnace slags, as determined by this proposed method, agreed well with the total sulfur content obtained by the conventional combustion-iodometric method.
  • Sulphur Distribution between Liquid Iron and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 Slags Saturated with MgO

    pp. 1293-1300

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    Experiments were made to examine the sulphur distribution between liquid iron and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (SiO2=020 wt%) slags in a magnesia crucible at the temperatures of 1 575, 1 600 and 1 650°C. The results showed that the transfer of sulphur between liquid iron and slag was slower than the dissolution of magnesia from the crucible into the slag. The main equations obtained in the present study are as follows:
    logCS=3.44(NCaO+0.1NMgO-0.8NAl2O3 NSiO2)-9894/T+2.05
    logLS=3.59(NCaO+0.1NMgO-0.8NAl2O3-NSiO2) -0.905logNFeO-4640/T+0.385
    The validity and the applicability of these equations have been examined by comparison with the data of other investigators.
  • Development of Oxygen Top Blowing and Argon Bottom Blowing Method in Refining of Stainless Steel

    pp. 1301-1308

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    Refining of stainless steel by oxygen top blowing and argon bottom blowing was investigated by using a 2.5 t laboratory scale converter. It was found that stainless steel can be produced in a top and bottom blowing converter by using argon bottom blowing as well as in AOD method because agitation of molten steel and dilution of CO gas with argon bubble are satisfactory. This method was successfully applied to the 15 t pilot scale converter and the 160 t industrial scale converter on the basis of the experimental results at the 2.5 t laboratory scale converter. From the study of decarburization rate and chromium oxidation at low carbon region, it was found that coefficient of decarburization rate was mainly controlled by interfacial area of argon bubbles and also could be increased by strong bath agitation. It was also seen that chromium oxidation proceeds with oxygen which was not consumed for decarburization.
    x

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    3. Refining Technology for High Purity Stainless Steels and Some Properties of Products Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.70(1984), No.11
  • Development of Secondary Refining Process. and Its Application to Production of Clean Steel

    pp. 1309-1315

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    Recently the needs of ultra low [S] and ultra low [O] steel for many kinds of products increase.
    Secondary refining process to achieve less than 5 ppm sulfur and less than 10 ppm oxygen in molten steel was investigated. In order to produce ultra low sulfur steel the optimum slag composition was determined as 60%CaO-32%Al2O3-8%SiO2 and the deviation of final slag composition could be decreased by the method of 2 times flux addition.
    In the case of producing ultra low oxygen steel, it was important for increasing deoxidation rate that the total content of FeO+MnO in slag before RH process was less than 1 wt% and then deoxidizing products were removed through RH process. On the basis of these results, the refining process, BOF-VSC-NKAP-GI-RH process, was established. By this process it became possible to achieve less than 5 ppm sulfur and less than 10 ppm oxygen in steel.
  • Effect of the Melting Rate on the Solidification Rate in the ESR Process

    pp. 1316-1319

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    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the melting rate on the solidification rate of ingot in the electroslag remelting process. Structural steel, SS41, was remelted in a copper mold of 85 mm in diameter. The average melting rate was varied from 310 g/min to 480 g/min. Iron sulfide powders were added into the molten metal at predetermined time intervals to determine positions of solidification fronts. Rising rate of solidification fronts VI were calculated from the volume increase in the solidification front region.
    The rising rates VI were almost the same as the melting rates. The local solidification rate increases linearly with the melting rate in the range of low melting rate. As the melting rate enters the range of high melting rate, the local solidification rate approaches to a constant value.
  • A Mathematical Analysis of Dislocation Slips during Cold-rolling Related to Recrystallization Texture Development in Steel Sheet

    pp. 1320-1327

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    A twisted region was thought to be an origin of recrystallized grains having a preferred orientation. Stable crystal orientations of the twisted region were mathematically analyzed by assuming that the twisted region was formed by blocking of a dislocation slip system during cold-rolling. In the mathematical treatment, <111> pencil glide system was assumed and cold-rolling deformation was characterized by a plane strain (-, , 0) model.
    There are two stable crystal orientation families of twisted region; (1) crystal orientation around near (R.D.→N.D.)-60°//<110> axis from {11, 11, 8}<4, 4, 11> to {211}<011>, (2) crystal orientation around near (R.D.→T.D.) -1.5°//<110> axis from {001}, <110> 11.5° to the orientation rotated by 35 degrees. These crystal orientations of twisted region coincide with those of experimentally obtained recrystallization textures.
  • Formation of Hard Paint Films by Electron Beam-curing Method and Pigment Effect on Their Physical Properties

    pp. 1328-1334

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    Resin formulations for electron beam(EB)-cured hard paint films and pigment effect on the properties of the cured films have been studied. Formulations with an acrylate oligomer as the main constituent resulted in low hardness, 2H. In formulations consisting mainly of acrylate monomers, the content of the oligomer was fixed at 30 wt%, and the unsaturate equivalent (Eu) of the monomer mixtures was varied. A multifunctional monomer with the Eu, value of around 100 resulted in a hard (7-8H) paint film. Study for pigment effect has been carried out on a film consisting of 70% pentaerythritol triacrylate and 30% oligomer. Pigmentation by TiO2 resulted in modulus reinforcement. However, the dynamic storage moduli of the paint film containing TiO2 with different surface treatments showed no significant difference, whereas degree of reinforcement for thermosetting polymers was reported to be greater when the pigment-polymer adhesion was stronger. The adhesive strength of the paint film attained a maximum at a definite pigment volume concentration.
  • Behavior of Fe-Sn Alloy Formation on Low Tin Plated Surface of Ni Flash-coated Steel Substrate

    pp. 1335-1342

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    The behavior of Fe-Sn alloy formation on low tin-plated surface of Ni flash-coated steel substrate was studied at stoving temperature for lacquer coating. The results are as follows:
    1) Making Ni flash coating amount as 15 mg/m2 on steel substrate and limiting the amount of alloyed Sn to 400 mg/m2 and less through the reflowing process for tin-plated surface eliminate the unfavorable influence of cathodic passivation on the increase of Fe-Sn alloy during stoving and assure the minimum formation of unfavorable Fe-Sn alloy to weldability after lacquer coating.
    2) The developed low tin plated steel sheet product from an electrolytic tinning line has a "dewy" ap-pearance of melted tin.
    3) Flash-coated Ni on steel substrate decreases the rate costant for Fe-Sn alloy growth during stoving of the developed product. The Fe-Sn alloy on the developed product after stoving is determined as a phase of very compact FeSn2, but contains the Ni flash coated on the substrate. The crystal orientation of FeSn2 on the product after stoving shows a strong preference for (002) plane.
    4) The accelerating effect of Cr passivation film on Fe-Sn alloy formation during stoving is derived from CrEC in the passivation film. The increment of CrEC amount in Cr passivation film correlates linearly to the increment of Fe-Sn alloy amount during stoving.
  • Alloying Behavior of Electrogalvanized Steel Sheet by Heating

    pp. 1343-1350

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    Alloying behavior of electrogalvanized coatings on a steel sheet was studied mainly by the method of X-ray diffraction at temperatures especially from 240 to 340°C. At the temperatures below 300°C, a cubic intermetallic phase like Γ is observed besides ζ phase from the beginning of the reaction. This Γ-like phase is electrochemically similar to ζ phase, and its {111} planes are predominantly oriented parallel to the original steel/zinc interface. Then another cubic phase is formed between steel and Γ-like phase after latent time more than a couple of hours. This secondary cubic phase is nobler than the first one. Within a range of 320 to 340°C, Γ-like phase preferentially oriented is formed and grown up. Then this phase is transformed into δ1 phase. At temperatures above 380°C, Γ-like phase preferentially oriented is not observed, and cubic phases are not formed at the beginning of the reaction, and ζ and δ1 phases are grown up since the beginning of the reaction. At these temperatures, cubic intermetallic phases, which are formed late, are not preferentially oriented.
  • Preform Conditions for Powder-consolidated Nickel-base Superalloy Mod. IN-100 Aimed at Grain Refinement

    pp. 1351-1358

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    Superplastic isothermal forging process called Gatorizing has been developed for manufacturing of turbine discs of nickel-base superalloy IN-100.
    A key point of this technology is a preform processing aimed at grain refinement for superplasticity but no details have been made public.
    Therefore, powder-consolidated Mod. IN-100 samples made by a hot isostatic pressing were extruded at various reductions and temperatures.
    The optimum conditions required to obtain the fine grained sound sample and the recrystallization behaviour during extrusion and subsequent annealing were investigated.
    It was shown from results that (1) the reduction should exceed about 70% and (2) the temperature range should be 1 353-1 393 K, strictly speaking, 1 393 K was most desirable.
    Furthermore, it was discussed whether a tensile strength and an elongation at 1 033 K of greater than 1 568 MPa and 20% which were aimed at by "the R & D Project of Basic Technology for Future Industries" sponsered by Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, MITI, were possible or not to be achieved by a optimum work processing, for a traditional alloy.
  • Effects of B and Zr on High Temperature Creep Properties of a Ni-20Cr Alloy

    pp. 1359-1366

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    In order to clarify the high temperature strengthening mechanisms of boron and zirconium in a Ni-Cr alloy, high-purity Ni-20Cr alloys have been studied from the view point of creep behavior and microstructure. With the boron or zirconium addition, creep resistance, rupture life and rupture elongation of Ni-20Cr alloy were improved, and it was assumed that the improvement of creep resistance is due to solid solution strengthening effect by zirconium, and the effect of boron is very little. Under high stress levels, the formation of subgrains and the dynamic recrystallization during creep were promoted by the boron or zirconium addition, and these microstructural changes seem to reduce the creep resistance. The longer rupture life and larger rupture elongation with the addition of boron or zirconium would be also attributed to the formation of subgrains and the dynamic recrystallization which retard the initiation and propagation of grain boundary cracks. Finally, it was suggested that these effects would be caused by the boron and zirconium dissolved in the γ-matrix rather than by the grain boundary segregation or sulfer-getting effects of these elements.
  • Effect of Microalloying Elements on the Hardenability and the Properties after Tempering at High Temperature in Boron Treated Cr-Mo-Nb Steels

    pp. 1367-1374

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    The hardenability and the properties after tempering at high temperature in boron treated Cr-Mo-Nb steels have been investigated with regard to the effect of microalloying elements. The results are as follows:
    (1) The hardenability and the toughness are divided roughly into three regions according to B and N contents under the condition that Ti and sol. Al contents are fixed. In the first region, dissolved B ([B]) content is poor, so steels have low hardenability. In the second region, [B] content is excess and steels have inferior toughness because of coarse M23(C, B)6 boro-carbides precipitation and denuded zones formation along grain boundaries on tempering treatment at high temperatures. In the third region, [B] content is optimum and steels have good hardenability and high toughness. The upper shelf energy, however, decreases when B is more than 30 ppm.
    (2) Ti and sol. Al contents affect [B] content, and therefore the boundary lines above mentioned shift with the addition and reduction of Ti and/or sol. Al.
    (3) Grain boundary carbides are M3C type carbides in B-free steels, and M23(C, B)6 type borocarbides in B-treated steels. In the N stabilized steels, M23(C, B)6 precipitates are fine, if [B] is less than about 10 ppm.
  • Effect of Carbides and Inclusions on Internal Hydrogen Embrittlement of Cr-Mo Pressure Vessel Steels

    pp. 1375-1382

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    Internal hydrogen embrittlement at room temperature was investigated for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo and 3Cr-1Mo steels. Hydrogen was charged in hydrogen gas of 100-250 kg/cm2 at 400-480°C. The results are as follows:
    (1) Ductility loss due to absorbed hydrogen decreased with decreasing tempering parameter until tensile strength reaches 70-75 kgf/mm2 and it was found that vanadium addition of above 0.2% reduced the internal hydrogen embrittlement. Both smaller tempering parameter and vanadium addition dispersed finer particles of carbides and, at the same time, increased absorbed hydrogen and markedly decreased hydrogen evolution rate at around room temperature. This suggests that the carbides trap hydrogen and partition of hydrogen to the trap sites increases with lowering temperature. Therefore, hydrogen content in the matrix decreases at room temperature and hydrogen supply to crack initiation sites is reduced, resulting in suppressing the ductily loss.
    (2) The ductility loss due to internal hydrogen was caused by the microcracks initiated at inclusions such as Al2O3 and MnS. It was affected by the number and size of inclusions.
    (3) It was demonstrated that cracks at elongated MnS inclusions were induced without external stress when steels were cooled to room temperature after hydrogenation at high temperature.
  • Rolling Contact Fatigue Behaviors of Bearing Steels under High Temperature and High Speed Loading Conditions

    pp. 1383-1390

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    Rolling contact fatigue behavior in SUJ-2 and AISI M50 steels was investigated using a thrust type testing under the conditions; shaft speed of 8 760 rpm, maximum Hertz stress of 476 kgf/mm2, and temperatures of 50°C and 150°C. The Weibull distribution of fatigue life at 50°C presented approximately linear line, while the complex Weibull distribution was obtained at 150°C in both SUJ-2 and M50 specimens. The rolling fatigue life of M50 was much longer than that of SUJ-2 at both 50°C and 150°C. The mean fatigue life of SUJ-2 at 150°C was shorter than that at 50°C, whereas the mean life of M50 at 150°C represented to a greater extension compared with the life at 50°C. These results were explained in terms of no hardness decrement on the track in M50 during high temperature rolling contact. Scanning electron microscopy of a flaking on the rolling surface and of a cross section revealed that the flaking in both SUJ-2 and M50 was initiated at plate-like carbides developed during cyclic stressing in rolling contact.
  • Hot Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-base Cast Superalloys in Combustion Gas Stream

    pp. 1391-1398

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    Hot corrosion behavior of nickel-base cast superalloys was studied for 10 alloys at 900°C for 7 h in the combustion gas flowing at Mach 0.5 prepared from 5 ppm NaCl-containing air and 0.5% sulfur-Containing fuel. It was classified into two discrete types. The first was characterized by a heavy uniform attack forming thin Cr-, Al-and Ti-depleted zone. Extent of the attack was independent of Cr content. The second was characterized by moderate localized attack forming thick Cr-, Al-and Ti-depleted zone and extent of the attack decreased with increasing Cr content. The first was observed for lower Cr alloys and the second for higher Cr alloys. However, the corrosion for alloys with intermediate Cr content was influenced also by other alloying elements. The type of the corrosion expected for an alloy depends on whether it forms a protective layer of chromium rich oxide or not.
  • 良い英文を書くために

    pp. 1403-1407

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    x

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    1. 池はすりばちやさかい Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.9
    2. 抄録 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.72(1986), No.9
    3. 抄録 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.9
  • センサーの開発について思う/制振鋼板の床面への利用/『あつてもないと』

    pp. 1406-1406,1479

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  • 抄録

    pp. 1411-1413

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    x

    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 良い英文を書くために Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.72(1986), No.9
    2. 池はすりばちやさかい Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.9
    3. 抄録 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.9

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