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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 58 (1972), No. 10

  • ユタの少女

    pp. 1353-1354

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  • Approximate Analysis of Hot-Blast Stove Operation

    pp. 1355-1362

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    A method has been proposed for analytical solution of the two point boundary value problem of hot-blast stove operation. The solution obtained from this method consists of two simple equations; the first is for a necessary condition for a balanced cycle and the second is a set of equations which make it possible to calculate the longitudinal distribution of temperatures in checker only from the operating conditions.
    Concerning the average flow rate of air and the distribution of temperatures in checker, the solutions obtained by this method are in good agreement with the numerical solutions.
  • Reduction of FeO in Molten Slags with Solid Carbon

    pp. 1363-1375

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    The reduction rate of FeO in molten slags by rotating carbon rod or coke rod is determined. The testing temperature is ranged from 1 350°C to 1 450°C and FeO concentration is ranged from 5 percent to 90 percent. The results of analysis of data in the range of which the revolution speed of a rod has no effect on the FeO reduction rate indicate that the rate-determining step can best be interpreted to be chemical reaction and its reduction rate is proportional to the first order of the estimated FeO activity in slags. The obtained rate equation is:
    -1/AnFeO=17.3·exp (-39700/RT)·αFeO
    Since FeO activity is generally not known at any temperature, a practical rate equation in which the activity of FeO at 1 600°C obtained by SAMARIN et al was used, is set up.
    With respect to the effect of bubble in the experiment, bubbles cover a part of reaction front and surpress the reaction in the case of its slow generating rate, but break the laminar film on the rod and accelerate the reaction rate in the case of its fast generating rate. Foaming in this experiment vigorously occurrs in a slag with high density and surface tension.
    x

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    1. Surface Tension and Density of FeO-CaO-SiO2 Melts Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.62(1976), No.1
  • Positive and Negative Ions from Molten Silicates Coated on Platinum-Rhodium Filament

    pp. 1376-1384

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    Positive and negative ions from some molten silicates coated on a Pt-Rh (10%) filament have been measured using mainly a Hitachi RM-6E single-focusing mass spectrometer. The samples used are Li2O-SiO2 (mole ratio 2: 1 and 3: 1), Na2O-Si02 (1: 1 and 2: 1), K2O-Si02 (1: 1), Cs20-Si02 (1: 1), PbO-Si02 (2: 1), Li20-Pb0-Si02 (2: 1: 1 and 1: 1: 2), and K2O-PbO-Si02 (2: 1: 3). The temperatures of samples are read with an optical pyrometer, but the readings can not be corrected for emissivity and window transmission. The apparent temperaturerange is between 800°C and 1 400°C.
    The negative ions O-, O2-, SiO3-, MSi03- (M=Li, K, and Cs), Rh02-, RhO-3, and Pt02- are found for all the systems investigated, except Pb0-Si02 (2: 1) and Li2O-Pb0-Si02 (1: 1: 2). The proportions of these ions from K2O-PbO-Si02 and K20-Si02 are particularly large compared with those from the other systems.
    When PbO is added to a K20-Si02 system, the lowest temperature at which the negative ions are detected is lowered. The intensities of these ions are also increased by the addition of PbO.
    The positive ions M+, M2+, M20+ (M =Li, Na, K, and Cs), 0, + 02+, and Si+ are obtained from all systems, except PbO-SiO2 (2: 1). The ions Li3O+ and Li3SiO3+ are found in the mass spectra of Li20-Si02 and Li2O-PbO-Si02. The ions containing Pb, such as LiPb0+, are found in the mass spectra of Li2O-Pb0-Si02.
  • A Study of the Relation between the Change in Tension and the Abrasion of the Drawing Die in High Speed Drawing Machine

    pp. 1385-1395

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    In a slip type drawing machine, it is difficult to control the drawing conditions which change in accordance with the abrasion of drawing die. In this study, by the use of a slip type drawing machine with two drawing capstans driven individually by 3-phase varying speed induction motor, a research was made to examine a characteristic of this drawing machine and the action of this motor during operations in the drawing machine. In the next place, to analyze the phenomenon of the abrasion of drawing die, the relation between the abrasion of drawing die and the tension of wire was measured during wire drawing. Further, the influence of change in back tension during drawing on the abrasion of drawing die was examined by a drawing test using a tension testing machine. The results obtained were as follows:
    1) The action of 3-phase varying speed induction motor keeps the wire free from slipping on the drawing capstans, enabling high speed drawing.
    2) So long as the die load is kept constant during drawing, the abrasion of drawing die is comparatively little, but it is apt to take place when the die load is changed.
  • Effect of Sheet Metal Grades and Operating Conditions on Deformation Constitutional Diagram in Stamping Autobody Parts

    pp. 1396-1414

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    In the press forming of autobody partswith various shapes and dimentions, the change in pattern on the deformation constitutional diagram wasobserved to evaluate the strain distribution in a longitudinal section of a fracture region or a nearly critical portion. Comparison of cylindrical formation with the press forming of autobody parts was made through the effect of steel sheet grade, blank holder pressure and lubrication on the strain distribution. Principally, similar behaviors were found between these two kinds of press forming, as shown in the following results.
    1) The greater the blank holder pressure and the more inappropriate the lubricating condition, the larger the difference in the strain behaviors among steel sheet grades is.
    2) The strain on the stretching side becomes smaller in the order, rimmed steel, OCA and killed steel.
    3) As for the shrinkage flange strain, the order of magnitude is reverse to that in 2); it is the largest in killed steel and the smallest in rimmed steel.
  • The Effect of TiN Dispersion Particles on the Ductility of Iron

    pp. 1415-1423

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    The effects of fine dispersion particles on the dutility of irons with various grain sizes were investigated at -196°C. The fine dispersion particles of TiN were obtained by internal nitriding of Fe -0.1% Ti alloy. The specimens were treated in hydrogen for 72 hr at 680°C, and annealed for 48 hr at 850°C. The tensile tests were carried out at strain rate of 5.5×10-4 sec-1 and at -196°C.
    The results were obtained as follows;
    1) TiN particles are uniformly precipitated within grains in the recrystallized structure of Fe -0.1% Ti alloy by internal nitriding.
    2) TiN particles improve the ductility of iron in the region of coarse grain size of matrix.
    3) TiN particles increase the cleavage fracture stress, and make the initiation of fracture of iron difficult.
    4) TiN particles don't change the fracture mode of iron.
  • Retardation of Recrystallization of Austenite during Hot Rolling of Nb-Containing Low-Carbon Steel

    pp. 1424-1437

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    An investigation was made of the effect of Nb on the refinement of ferrite grain size in hot-rolled low-carbon steels.
    Experiments of hot-rolling by 2-passes were performed using 11 vacuum-melted steels with various C, N, Nb, and V contents. The main results are as follows:
    (1) In Si-Mn steels not containing such special elements as Nb, the coarse grains of austenite at soaking temperature are recrystallized into fine grains during hot-rolling. The relation between the austenite grain size just above Ar3 and the transformed ferrite grain size is similar whether the process contains hot-rolling or not.
    (2) In the steels containing comparatively large amounts of Nb or, when hot-rolled at relatively low temperatures, in the steels containing small amounts of Nb, the austenite can not recrystallize during cooling from finish-rolling temperature to Ar3 and transforms to ferrite of finer grains. Ferrite grains nucleate around the deformation bands in unrecrystallized austenite grains as well as at the austenite grain boundaries.
    Mixed grain and/or upper-bainitic structures sometimes appear after transformation.
    (3) The retardation of recrystallization of austenite during hot-rolling process in Nb-containing steels is due to NbC (N) which has been in solution at soaking temperature and finely precipitates during hotrolling. Hot-rolling accelerates such precipitation. Therefore, when finish-rolled at a higher temperature, the austenite of steels containing small amounts of C, N, and Nb recrystallizes completely.
    (4) When the austenite recrystallizes completely during cooling to a temperature just above Ar3, the presence of precipitates, as NbC (N) or VN, can contribute to the refinement of ferrite grain size, probably by retarding the growth of ferrite grains.
  • The Effect of Strain Rate, Temperature and Grain Size on the Lower Yield Stress and Flow Stress of Polycrystalline Pure Iron

    pp. 1438-1455

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    The lower yield and flow stresses of polycrystalline pure iron specimens with a wide range of grain sizes from 10.3 μ to 102 μ were measured by tensile test at the temperatures between 77°K and 473°K at the strain rates from 10-7 sec-1 to 1 sec-1. The observed stress was decomposed into a friction part (al) and grain size depending part (k·D-1/2) in the Hall-Petch relation and they were discussed separately. It was found that the lower yield stress did not satisfy the Hall-Petch relation at each temperature and strain rate investigated. The lower yield stress of coarse grained specimens below D-1/2=7 mm-1/2 showed a usual grain size dependence, but that of fine grained specimens showed a dependence about 3 times as large as the former. The thermal component of lower yield stress of the specimen with abnormal grain size dependence had larger temperature and strain rate dependences than that of the specimen with normal dependence.
    The relation between the activation energy or activation volume for low temperature deformation and thermal shear stress was not affected by the grain size. Therefore it was concluded that the lower yield stresses of both fine and coarse grained specimens were controlled by the same thermally activated rate process (the Peierls-Nabarro mechanism).
    The strain rate dependence of the lower yield stress of pure iron was continuous in a very wide range of strain rate. The relation between the thermal component of lower yield stress (σ1*) and strain rate (ε) was well approximated by the equation, σ1*1/2=r1 log ε+C4′ at all the temperatures tested.(r4′ and C4′ are constants which depend on temperature).
  • The Influence of the Calcium Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Low Carbon Si-Mn Steel

    pp. 1456-1462

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    In order to investigate the influence of shape and distribution of nonmetallic inclusions on the mechanical properties of weldable structural steels, some mechanical properties of ordinary steels and calcium treated steels were studied.
    The shape and distribution of inclusions of the untreated steels were well distinguished from those of the calcium treated steels; the microcracks seem to nucleate more easily around the stringer inclusions observed in the untreated steels than the oval inclusions observed in the calcium treated steels.
    In connection with this phenomenon, various mechanical properties of the calcium treated steel were better than that of the untreated steel.
  • Effect of Composition of Substrates and Constituent of Chromizing Powder on Properties of Chromized Layer Formed on Heat-resistant Alloys

    pp. 1463-1476

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    Effects of chemical composition of substrates and constituents of chromizing powder on the thickness and chromium concentration of chromized layer have been investigated. The thickness of chromized layer on austenitic alloy is determined by contents of carbon and carbide forming elements in the substrate. The thickness of chromized layer of Cr-Ni austenitic steel which contains more than 0.2% C is limited to a small value because chromium carbides formed on boundaries of chromized layer and the substrate become a barrier against chromium diffusion. But chromized layer of more than 100 μ is obtained on high carbon super alloys such as S590 and S816, primarily because these alloys contain large amounts of carbide forming elements.
    A clear relationship is found between the thickness of the chromized layer on ferritic stainless steel and the chromium equivalent of the substrate steel. A remarkable increase of thickness of the layer is detected when chromium equivalent of the substrate steel exceeds 7.5. It has been already reported that addition of iron powder to Cr-Al2O3 chromizing powder gives a pronounced effect on growth of chromized layer of austenitic alloys, but the use of ferro-chromium power is not so effective as the addition of iron powder.
  • Electrochemical Rapid Determination of Oxygen Content of Liquid Steel in LD Converter

    pp. 1477-1484

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    In order to utilize EMF method as a rapid determination of oxygen content of molten steel in commercial LD converter, a preliminary study was first carried out by using a furnace with graphite heating element. Then, a device to use in practical LD converters was developed successfully. The device was like a temperature measuring device of molten steel, and composed of a holder and a consumable part covered with a paper sleeve. Air was used as the reference and a piece of small rod of ZrO2 stabilized by CaO was fused at the end of quartz tube as an electrolyte sensor in the consumable part. In a commercial 80 t LD converter, the influence of slag and the temperature difference between the inside and the outside of the electrolyte were also clarified. After correcting the thermal EMF caused by the temperature difference, the relation between EMF and the analysed oxygen values was nearly in agreement with the theoretical one obtained in Fe-C-O melts in the small scale furnace. Reproducibility of this method was fairly good and within 5% in the coefficient of variation.
  • State Analysis of Manganese in Carbon Steel and Low Alloy Steel

    pp. 1485-1494

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    This work, a part of a general investigation on the state analysis of steel, was carried out to develop a systematic method for isolation and determination of manganese compounds in carbon steel and low alloy steel.
    1. Isolation of manganese compound from steel.
    (a) The steel sample covered with close-texture filter paper as a diaphragm is, as an anode, dissolved into 130 ml of 1% NaC1- 5% EDTA electrolyte (pH 6-7) at a current density of 50 mA/cm2 for 2 hr. Remove the anode and the residue is collected into a beaker using methanol.
    (b) To the residue add 50 ml of 2% EDTA solution (pH5-6) and shake for 30 min. Filter and wash with water. To the filterate add 10 ml of HNO3 and 10 ml of HCIO4, and evaporate to dense white fumes. Determine Mn as carbide in accordance with section 2.
    (c) Transfer a part of the electrolyte to a beaker. Add 15 ml of HNO3 and 10 ml of HCIO4 and evaporate to dense white fumes. Determine Mn as solid solution in accordance with section 2.
    (d) Transfer the paper and residue (paragraph (b)) to a beaker, add 30 ml of 2% EDTA solution and 20 ml of 5% H202 and shake for 60 min. Filter and wash with water. To the filterate add 10 ml of HNO3 and 10 ml of HCIO4 and evaporate to dense white fumes. Determine Mn as sulfide in accordance with section 2.
    (e) Transfer the paper and residue (paragraph (d)) to a beaker, add 30 ml of HNO3 and 10 ml of HC104 and evaporate to dense white fumes. Determine Mn as oxide in accordance with section 2.
    2. Determination of manganese
    Add 50 ml of water, 3 ml of H2SO4, 4 ml of H3P04 and 20 ml of 5% NalO4, solution to each beakers (section 1 (b), (c), (d) and (e)), and boil for 5 min. Cool, dilute to 100 ml. Measure the absorbance of solution against water at 530 mμ.
  • An Application of Triggered DC Spark Source Mass Spectrography to Microprobe Analysis of Steel

    pp. 1495-1503

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    A mass spectrographic apparatus equipped with a triggered DC spark source has been developed for an effective microprobe analysis of scores of micron diameter on the surface of steel and the other alloys. The purpose of the present investigation is to analyze trace elements whose contents are less than the detection limit of electron probe microanalyzer, in microscopic area smaller than usual by adjusting a spark gap by an optical microscope, which is installed in the spark source unit of a mass spectrograph.
    As the results, the size of crater created by spark is about 30 u in diameter for the exposure of 1×10-12 coulomb, which is much smaller than that obtained with a spark gap by direct visual observation. The reproducibility of ion intensity detected in the proposed technique is about 10% for almost all the elements, being similar to that by direct visual observation. This technique is also applied to a segregation analysis of welding posts of carbon and high alloy steels and dross in zinc plating bath, and some interesting informations are obtained about the segregation of trace elements in the above materials.
  • Behavior of Large Inclusions during Solidification of Ingots

    pp. 1504-1510

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    An investigation was made of distribusions and chemical compositions of large inclusions in rising capped steel, Al semi-killed steel, and Al-Si killed steel ingots, and the origin and behavior of the large inclusions during solidification of ingots were clarified.
    The large inclusions are formed as a result of the coagulation of the deoxidation product in the mold to the exogenous inclusion such as the steelmaking slag and the errosion product of refractories, and the deoxidation product in the ladle.
    The ratio of the mold deoxidation product in the large inclusions increases as the size of the large inclusions decreases.
  • Causes and Preventions of Continuous Casting Defects

    pp. 1511-1534

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  • 製鋼反応の推奨平衡値

    pp. 1535-1546

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  • 抄録

    pp. 1547-1550

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