Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 49 (1963), No. 1

  • 年頭の辞

    pp. 1-2

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  • 1962 Perspective of Production and Technique of Iron and Steel in Japan

    pp. 3-9

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  • Effect of Rate of Carbon Deposition

    pp. 10-15

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    It is well known that a “hanging” in a blast furnace makes the productivity of blast furnace lower. However, the growth behavior and the cause of hanging have not been fully ascertained, excepting only some assumptions. Therefore, an experimental apparatus was devised, in which the reducing gas passed through the iron are bed the same as in a blast furnace.
    With this experimental apparatus, the phenomenon similar to the hanging in the shaft of blast furnace was observed. Then, studies were made on the relation between the gas analysis, the iron are size, the rate of carbon deposition and the variation of bed permeability. Consequently, it was found that the tendency to occur the hanging varied with the change in gas composition, are size and are qualities. It was also confirmed that the hanging was closely connected with the rate of carbon deposition.
  • On the Reduction of Iron Sands by Water Gas in a Fluidized Bed

    pp. 16-22

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    Studies were made on the reduction of iron sands by watergas. The reducing furnace used was a two-stage fluidizing roaster.
    The results obtained were as follows:
    1. In batch operations, the rate of reduction in fluidized beds was mainly controlled by the gas/ore ratio. The streaming gas velocity had no effect on reduction.
    2. The utilization of gas was increased with a decrease of the gas/ore ratio.
    3. Continuous operation of this two-stage roaster was very satisfactory.
    The heat-input in a reduction bed was only 10% of the latent heat of combustion gas for heating the outside of a reduction bed.
  • Continuous Determination of the Oxygen Dissolved in Molten Steel by Electromotiveforce Measurement and Its Application to Several Experiments

    pp. 22-29

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    The oxygen dissolved in molten steel has been directly and continuously determined by the electromotiveforce tneasurement of the following reversible cell:
    That is, a magnesia crucible, in which the carbon-saturated iron and a graphite rod as a lead are inserted, is dipped directly into a molten steel with unknown oxygen content. In this case, the magnesia article serves as an intermediate electrolyte. Then, an electromotive force between the carbon saturated iron and a molten steel is measured at about 1600°C.
    E.M.F. in preliminary experiments shows a good reproducibility and a very sensitive correspondence to the change of oxygn potential of atmosphere. Consequently, the constructed cell is considered as a reversible cell and the possibility of the determination of oxygen by this electrochemical method is recognized by the preliminary experiments.
    A conversion chart of e. m. f. (my) to oxygen content determined by vacuum fusion analysis in many iron-carbon alloys was plotted at the vicinity of 1600°C. Furthermore, its application to such experiments as continuous determination of the oxygen with decarburization during the oxygen blowing, deoxidizing power of several elements and so on, was carried out with satisfactory results.
  • Some Consideration on the Origin of Sand Marks

    pp. 29-37

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    In a series of the study on the nonmetallic inclusions, especially sand marks in steel, some consideration herein is made towards the origin of sand marks referring to the results of experiment which have been reported in the second to the fourth report on this subject. (Tetsu-to-Hagané 47 (1961) 11, p. 1588; 48 (1962) 7, p. 850; 47 (1961) 7, p. 907)
    The main causes which presumably induce occurrence of sand marks are made clear as. follows;
    (1) Erosion of refractory materials for steel ingot-making in contact with molten steel;
    (2) Change of molecular species constituting nonmetallic inclusions, and decrease of fluidity of molten steel under different conditions of deoxidation or austenite-grain refining;
    (3) Oxidation of molten steel by open air; and (4) oxidation of aluminium, for instance, as deocidizer and as austenite-grain refiner, that might occur together with oxidation of molten steel by air.
  • Effects of Chemical Composition in the Specified Range on Continuous Cooling Transformation Behaviors of 0.6% C.ENi-Cr-Mo Steel

    pp. 37-46

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    Continuous cooling transformation diagrams were determined for five steels selected from the same grade, 0.6% C.ENi-Cr-Mo steel. It was revealed that small variations in chemical composition within the specified range of the steel resulted in an appreciable difference in transformation behaviors. Transformation behaviors of the steels were expressed or compared quantitatively in terms of important characteristic values capable of representing CCT diagrams. Various empirical relations were presented which enabled us to predict continuous cooling transformation behaviors of the steels from their chemical composition and grain size. Critical cooling rates for various amounts of bainite formation were correlated to “the ideal critical diameter” which was calculable from chemical composition and grain size of steel. Critical cooling rates for various amounts of pearlite were shown to be evaluated from the C content of steel. Interrelationships among various critical cooling rates (corresponding to various amounts of transformation) were shown for bainite and pearlite transformations.
    Hardness of as-continuously-cooled and as-cooled-and-tempered specimens was determined as a function of cooling rate on continuous cooling, and it was correlated to the constitution of microstructure. The relation of the amount of transformation product (bainite or pearlite) to the dilatometric expansion due to transformation was also investigated.
  • Effects of Heat-Treatments on Hardness and Compressive Breaking Strength of Bearing Steels

    pp. 47-54

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    Influences of various factors of heat-treatments on hardness and compressive breaking strength of SUJ-2 bearing steels for races were investigated physico-metallurgically.
    These mechanical properties, which were referred to Japanese Industrial Standard, showed the contrary changes each other: The higher the austenitizing temperature, the longer the austenitizing period as well as the lower the tempering temperature, the more hardness would be raised while compressive breaking strength would be the less. Therefore, the conditions under which both of these designated values were satisfied were proved to be limited to a very narrow range. It was concluded that the tetragonality i. e. the soluble carbon content of the quenched martensite chiefly determined both these mechanical properties.
    Besides, it was found that hardness and compressive breaking strength of the quenchedand-tempered steels were both raised as their spheroidized cementite particles prior to quenching had been diminished in size, and the causes were speculated.
    Furthermore, effects of subzero treatment as well as martempering on the properties of the steels were investigated. These results showed evidently that the compressive breaking strength depended mainly upon the conditions of their martensite, while their retained austenite would scarecely display a cushiony action in the compressive breaking test.
  • Tensile Impact Properties of Mild Steel at Low Temperature

    pp. 55-62

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    Brittle fracture strength of a mild steel under tensile loading was studied under different conditions of temperature, notch sharpness and deformation rate. The test temperature ranged from room temperature to liquid-nitrogen temperature and the deformation rate was varied from a quasistatic to a dynamic test with a impact velocity of 80m/s.
    The results obtained are summurized as follows:
    (1) Both strength reduction factor and deformation limit to fracture are decreased and notch strength is increased on sharpening the notch of the test piece. The main features in these changes are similar in both static and impact tests, but the latter gives more marked changes than the former.
    (2) Increase of impact velocity, sharpening of the notch and a drop in testing temperature give the same effect on the appearance of brittle fracture. The notch strength shows a maximum when the fracture mode changes from a ductile to a completely brittle appearance when any one of the above three factors is varied. The maximum fracture notch strength ranges from 102 to 115kg/mm2.
    (3) Change of tensile impact properties of notched specimens on testing at different temperatures shows a similar tendency to that of bending properties in Charpy impact test as observed by the authors in the previous experiment (Tetsu-to-Hagané Overseas, 1 (1961), p. 38). At the transition from a ductile to a fully brittle fracture condition, the tensile fracture notch strength shows a maximum. The higher impact velocity gives the higher temperature at which the fracture strength reveals a maximum. The maximum fracture notch strength in brittle fracture ranges from 104 to 110kg/mm2.
    (4) In all the static or the impact tensile tests, reduction of area after fracture of the notched specimen drops discontinuously into brittle fracture region and shows more remarkable change on increasing the impact velocity or on lowering the testing temperature.
    (5) Brittle fracture of a plain specimen without notch occurs at the impact velocity of 10m/s on testing at liquid-nitrogen temperature, giving the brittle fracture strength of 98kg/mm2.
    (6) Some discussions have been made on the observed brittle fracture strength in relation to the testing conditions.
  • Continuous Annealing of Cold-Rolled Sheets

    pp. 63-78

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 日本鉄鋼協会第60回講演大会講演大要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.46(1960), No.10
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  • Progress of Steelmaking Process in Japan

    pp. 79-89

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  • Development of Installation and Technique in Blooming Mill

    pp. 90-95

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  • 抄録

    pp. 96-101

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  • 鉄鋼ニューズ

    pp. 104-105

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  • 特許記事

    pp. 106-109

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