Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 64 (1978), No. 2

  • 日本の将来と技術関発

    pp. 185-186

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  • The Effective Diffusion Coefficient of CO2 in the Solution Loss of Coke

    pp. 187-195

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    The diffusion of gaseous reactant in pores is one of the processes essentially influencing the rate of the solution loss reaction of lumpy coke, if the reaction proceeds by partial internal burning. Then, the effective diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide in lumpy coke was estimated through analysing the over all rate of the reaction by the application of the rate equations for complete internal burning.
    Concerning slab samples, the diffusibility, (De/D) of carbon dioxide was respectively evaluated to be 1.8×10-2 and 1.2×10-2 for conventional metallurgical coke and formed cokes which had the porosities being 0.52 and 0.33 respectively.
    The characteristic size of crushed coke depended on the estimation standard used. For instance, the sphere-equivalent size differed considerably from the size defined as the ratio of volume to external surface area of a particle, owing to the irregular shape of the crushed materials. The value of the diffusibility obtained by the use of the sphere-equivalent size was 2 to 3 times that according to the other size estimation and was nearly constant at 3.2×10-2 regardless of temperature above 1000°C for both kinds of coke, while it decreased with increase of temperature above 1000°C according to the other estimation.
  • Activities of Manganese and Silicon in δ-Iron at Solid-Liquid Equilibrium Temperature

    pp. 196-205

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    The equilibrium relationship between solid and liquid has been studied for Fe-Mn-Si ternary system.
    The solid-1iquid equilibrium temperature can be related to the concentrations of Mn and Si in liquid iron alloy as follows:
    From measured solid-liquid equilibrium distribution ratio, the activity coefficients of Mn and Si in δ-iron are calculated. The results obtained are as follows:
    where pure solid Mn and Si are taken as the standard states.
    Using these results, the composition of δ-iron in equilibrium with liquid Fe-Mn-Si alloy can be calculated.
    T=te+273
    [% i (S) ]: Weight percentage of component i in solid phase (δ-iron)
    [% i (l) ]: Weight percentage of component i in liquid phase
  • Thermodynamic Activities in Fe-Mn Alloys at 1833K

    pp. 206-214

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    Ratios of the vapor concentrations of Mn to Fe have been determined for Fe-Mn binary alloys having 50 at% Mn or less at 1833K by a vapor transport method. In the present transport method, vapor saturation needs not be satisfied in order to measure vapor concentration ratios. The thermodynamic activities were calculated with the aid of the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The calculation has shown that a maximum of the Mn activity coefficient (yMn) exists near 17 at% Mn, and that negative deviation of yMn from ideality below 6 at% Mn and positive deviation above 6 at% Mn are seen. It has been shown that the experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the behaviors of other physical chemical properties such as inter-diffusivity, viscosity, and electrical resistivity. The existence of a maximum of yMn has been accounted for by considering a plausible variation of the liquid structure of Fe-Mn alloys in connection with the phase diagram. On combining the present data and other data, the most reliable values of the activities in Fe-Mn alloys at 1833K have been presented in tabular and graphical forms.
  • A Consideration on the Interfacial Tension between Metal and Slag with Iron Transfer through the Interface

    pp. 215-224

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    An approach based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes has been applied to the study of the interfacial tension σ′ms between liquid dilute Fe-Si-O alloys and CaO-SiO2-FeO slags of nonequilibrium state during iron transfer through the interface. Behaviours of the σ′ms obtained by experiments could be explained reasonably from the phenomcnological equation, which describes the coupling phenomena between surface flow and mass flow. Surface transfer coefficients M and phenomenological coefficients, L22 and L21 (=L12) were evaluated from the experimental results of σ′ms. Relations between the iron transfer rate and the values, M, L22, and L12 could be explained reasonably from the movements of the metal-slag interface and the direction of the iron transfer by considering the physicochemical properties of the system. The values, M and L12 in the case of the iron transfer from the metal to the slag in steady state indicate the possibility of the actual increase in the iron transfer rate by the interfacial movements.
  • Measurement of the Electrical Conductivity of ESR Fluxes Containing Fluoride by Four Electrodes Method with Alternating Current

    pp. 225-231

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    In order to measure the electrical conductivities of fluloride melts at high temperature, fbur electrodes method with AC has been developed. Various conditions in measurement of solution resistance were determined by use of potassium chloride aqueous solution at room temperature. The electrical condulctivities of pure calcium fluoride and those of commercial fluxes such as ANF-1P, ANF-6 and ANF-7 were measured in the temperature range from 1450 to 1750°C. The rcsults showed that the use of graphite crucible was unfavourable fbr those melts and the sufficient dehydration of samples and atomospheric argon gas were desirable. The specific conductivities of calcium fiuoride melts obtaincd at the temperatures of 1500, 1600 and 1700°C were 6.15, 6.40 and 6.60 mho/cm, respectively. Those results were compared with that of previous investigations.
    x

    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Immersion Cooling of Heated Steel Plate and Influence of Water Stirring on Heat Transfer Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.64(1978), No.1
    2. 第97回講演大会討論会講演概要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.65(1979), No.2
    3. 第95回講演大会討論会講演概要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.64(1978), No.2
  • Study of the Conduction Mechanism of Molten Fluxes for Electroslag Remelting

    pp. 232-239

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    Electrical conductivities of CaF2-based fluxes for electroslag remelting were measured and the effects of the additions on the conductivity of CaF2 melt were studied. From the results, conduction mechanism of CaF2-based melts were discussed in the term of molar conductivity. The additions of alkali earth metal fluorides and oxides, such as MgF2, BaF2, MgO, CaO and BaO, varied the molar conductivities of CaF2-based melts in accordance with the intensity of cation-anion attraction. It seems that those additions have a tendency to make an ionic pair in the melts. The additions such as Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2, may react with fluorine ions to make oxy-fluoride complex ions and then remarkable decreace of electrical conductivity by those additions can be explained.
  • Prevention of Hydration of Lime by Partial Carbonation

    pp. 240-249

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    As a means of preventing hydration of lime, a partial carbonation method is tried and the condition for the carbonation and properties of carbonated lime are investigated.
    (1) The course of carbonation is expressed by ΔWCO2=ktn (ΔWCO2: weight increase by carbonation, t: time, k, n, : constants depending on temperature, CO2% in atmosphere and so on). Beyond a value of WCO2, which depends on temperature, the rate of weight increase becomes small abruptly. In order to prevent the hydration effectively, lime at the end of CO2-treatment must reach this state.
    (2) The degree of hydration of lime treated in an adequate condition (ΔWCO2: 5-7%) is 1/10 to 1/20 of that of ordinary lime.
    (3) Hydrogen content in molten steel does not increase during fluxing of CO2-treated lime. In an arc furnace, however, in which hydrogen is apt to be absorbed from atmosphere, it is desirable to control the arc atmosphere as well as to use CO2-treated lime.
  • Calculation of Spread, Elongation, Effective Roll Radius, Roll Force and Torque When Rolling in the Square-Diamond, Square-Oval and Round-Oval Passes

    pp. 250-259

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    By means of laboratory hot rolling test of mild steel bars, those chracteristic values of the pass rollings shown in the title were measured under the wide range of rolling conditions.
    Through the treatment of experimental data, it has been found for each pass sequence that 1) the spread exponent (k) defined to determine spread and elogation of metals may be expressed as a function of shape factor (US), and 2) mean forward slip (φ) defined to determine the effective roll radius may be expressed as a function of elongation (λ-1), and 3) non dimensional roll force (Q) and torque arm coefficient (φ) may be expressed as functions of mean roll gap ratio (m).
    Making use of these empirical expressions, a new calculation mass-model was presented, which enabled to predict those characteristic values of rolling with very high accuracy for any arbitrary rolling conditions of those pass sequences.
  • Plastic Deformation of Iron Single Crystals under Simple Shear

    pp. 260-267

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    Observations were made on the plastic deformation of iron single crystals subjected to the simple shear on the single and multiple slip systems to examine the work hardening behavior. When the applied shear stress was matched to the single slip systems, the easy glide in stage I was clearly observed in the stressstrain curves. On the other hand, when the applied shear stress coincided with the multiple glide system, the linear hardening in stage II was clearly recongnized from the early stage of deformation.
    To examine the work hardening mechanisms, the strain rate-cycling tests were performed on crystals in easy glide and linear hardening regions and the average effective and internal stresses were estimated as a function of strain in these regions.
    In the easy glide in stage I. the effective stress is essentially independent of the strain whilst the internal stress increases with strain. The work hardening in stage I resulted from the increased long range internal stress field due to dislocation tangles and cell walls. On the other hand, the work hardening in stage II is caused by the increase in both internal and effective stresses. The ratio of the internal and effective stresses is approximately 2.6. This result suggests that the work hardening in stage II is associated with the long range internal stress field as well as the hardening in stage I.
  • Fatigue Properties of Carbon Steels (Containing 0.13-0.41%C) with Various Heat Treated Structures

    pp. 268-277

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    The relationships between microstructures and cyclic properties such as the Bauschinger effect, fatigue damage, crack initiation, and crack propagation in carbon steels were investigated. For each heat treatment the cyclic stress or strain response was measured until the crack initiation. Optical metallography and transmission microscopy were used to characterize the microstructural changes during testing. Fatigue crack propagation properties were reported using the empirical equation da/dN=C (ΔK) m.
    It was found that Bauschinger behaviour was well reflected in low cycle fatigue properties, and the higher was Bauschinger stress of the structure, the more remarkable was the softening. During high cycle fatigue process the dispersion of the fine pearlite and cementite is found to facilitate the cross slip and to result in high plastic strain, but the existence of subboundaries tends to restrict the increase of the plastic strain. Fatigue crack initiation sites depended on the heat treated structures for one steel. It was found that at the low ΔK level fatigue crack propagation properties were not affected by various strengthening structural factors, but generally controlled only by the mechanical properties of matrix.
  • Fatigue Behaviour of Metastable and Stable Austenitic Steels

    pp. 278-287

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    An attempt has been made to survey the fatigue behaviour of three different austenitic steels. The materials tested are an Fe-3ONi alloy as metastable austenite, an Fe-38Ni alloy as stable austenite, and an Fe-25Ni-16Cr alloy of low stacking fault energy. It was found that at low stress amplitudes the fatigue life of the metastable steel was longer than that of the stable ones, while at high stress amplitudes the metastable steel was inferior to the stable ones. This is probably attributed to the differences of the rate and period of martensite formation. The fatigue life of the Fe-25Ni-16Cr alloy was less than that of the Fe-38Ni alloy at only high stress amplitude. The Fe-30Ni alloy was cyclically hardened remarkably with martensite formation, but its cyclic strain behaviour except the hardening resulted from the martensite formation was extremely similar to that of the Fe-38Ni alloy, that is, at high stress amplitudes the hardening occured remarkably and at low stress amplitudes softening occured slightly. Fatigue crack propagation properties of the Fe-30Ni alloy was also better than that of the Fe-38Ni alloy at low ΔK level, but at high ΔK level the former was inferior to the latter.
  • Influence of Metallurgical Factors on Hydrogen Damage of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    pp. 288-296

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    The damage of austenitic stainless steels heated at high temperature and high pressures of hydrogen was investigated with reference to the metallurgical factors. Main results obtained are as follows:
    1) The solubility of hydrogen (wtppm) in 304 steel hydrogenated at T: 473-723 (K) under P: 10-300 (atm) is given by the following Sieverts' equation,
    [H] =9.261/√P exp (-1470/RT)
    where, R is the gas constant (cal/mol).
    2) The embrittlement of 304 steel increased rapidly with increasing hydrogen content until about 30 wtppm above which the influence of hydrogen content weakens.
    3) The sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of austenitic stainless steels increased largely with decreasing Ni equivalent less than about 25% and the better correlation between the sensitivity to HE and the volume of stress-induced martensite produced under tensile testing can be obtained.
    4) The sensitivity to HE of austenitic stainless steels increased remarkably with increasing the grain size and the volume of carbide precipitated at grain boundary or ferrite phases precipitated in austenitic matrix. The existence of notch in the tensile specimen can also increase it.
  • Determination of Nitrogen Oxides of Low Concentration in Exhaust Gas by Improved Phenol Disulfonic Acid Method

    pp. 297-302

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    There is in Japanese Industrial Standard the method for determination of nitrogen oxides (NOx), JIS K 0104 in which the mesuring range of phenol disulfonic acid method (PDS method) is described to be between 10 and 2000ppm. However, it is known that this method shows considerably lower values in the range of low concentration of NOx and requires very long time for analysis.
    Therefore, the authors devised a gas sampling apparatus in which NO was oxidized with oxdizing gas to remove these weak points. Two methods, the oxidation method with oxygen and oxidation method with ozone, for the determination of NOx have been experimented.
    The following results were obtained.
    (1) Analytical results of NO balanced with nitrogen by this method agreed closely with those by chemiluminescent method (NOx meter) and standard deviation for 10ppm NO and 50ppm NO were 0.126 and 0.293 respectively.
    (2) The time required for analysis was shortened from 1/5 to 1/7 by the use of this method.
  • Improvement of High Temperature Strength of 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V Steel for Boiler Main Steam Pipe

    pp. 303-309

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    In order to develop a low alloy heat resistant steel which has a higher creep-rupture strength than that of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel for boiler main steam pipe, the effects of cooling rates at quenching (1400°C/h-300°C/h) and of thermal cycle on the high temperature strength of 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel have been investigated. The thermal cycle is designed so as to simulate the thermal condition encountered in the hot bending of the main steam pipe. The high temperature strength of the welded joint of the steel has also been investigated. It is found from the results that this steel is unsuitable for main steam pipe.
    A trial, therefore, has been made on the improvement of the hardenability and the high temperature strength of 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel, and the effects of increase in the content of C, Cr and Mn, and the effects of Ni or B addition on the microstructure and the high temperature strength of this steel have been investigated. Experimental results show that 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel with 0.003wt%B has a favourable structure (all bainite) and high temperature strength even at the cooling rate as low as 300°C/h.
    x

    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Mechanical Properties of High Strength Low Alloy Steel Controlled Rolled at Austenite and Ferrite Two Phase Regions Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.65(1979), No.9
    2. 報告 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.64(1978), No.3
    3. 第97回講演大会討論会講演概要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.65(1979), No.2
  • High Temperature Properties and Weldability of 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V-B Heat Resistant Steel

    pp. 310-316

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    For the purpose of application to boiier main steam pipes, the continuous cooling transformation, high temperature strength, weldability by restrained crack test, creep-rupture strength and the oxidation resistance of a newly-developed 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V-0.003B steel have been investigated.
    This steel has a better hardenability than 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel. The high temperature strength of this steel does not decrease with the decrease of cooling rate from 1400°C/h to 300°C/h and does not change appreciably by the hot bending thermal cycle. The 105h creep-rupture strength at 600°C of this steel as the base metal is 8.4kg/mmmm2 and that as a welded joint is 6.1kg/mmmm2. These values are 2 times and 1.5 times higher than those of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel respectively. The improvement of high temperature strength is mainly due to the upper bainite structure with uniformly dispersed fine VC carbides. Furthermore, the weldability and the oxidation resistance at temperatures below 650°C of this steel are comparable to those of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel. Thus this steel is favourable for the boiler main steam pipe application.
  • Recent DeveloPment and Theory of Lubrication in Cold Sheet Rolling

    pp. 317-330

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  • Current Topics on the Elevated Temperature Design Code

    pp. 331-337

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  • On the 5th and 6th Comparative High Temprature Tensile Testings

    pp. 338-347

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  • 報告

    pp. 348-352

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  • 抄録

    pp. 353-359

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  • 第95回講演大会討論会講演概要

    pp. A1-A16

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  • 第95回講演大会討論会講演概要

    pp. A17-A36

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  • 第95回講演大会討論会講演概要

    pp. A37-A56

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  • 第95回講演大会討論会講演概要

    pp. A57-A72

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  • 第95回講演大会討論会講演概要

    pp. A73-A88

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