Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 43 (1957), No. 11

  • ON THE PRODUCTION OF PIG IRONS FOR NODULAR CAST IRON AND EFFECTS OF MINOR SPECIAL ELEMENTS IN THEM

    pp. 1191-1194

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    Pig irons for nodular cast iron have been produced since 1953 by the blast furnace in Kamaishi Iron Works. But sometimes, it took place that inadequate pig irons for nodular cast iron were produced, although these contents of primary (C, Si, Mn, P, S) and secondary (Ti, As, Sn etc.) elements were within specification of pig iron for nodular cast iron.
    In order to inspect these accidents, the authors investigated the practical producing conditions of these irons. And the following results were obtained:
    The special elements such as Sn, As, Sb and etc. which came in pig iron from ore materials used in blast furnace had the harmful influence for the formation of nodular graphite, and the influence was emphasized by the presence of 0.05-0.1% titanium which was always contained in pig irons.
    Thus the authors were able to produce superior pig iron for nodular cast iron by using raw materials which contained the harmless amount of the above elements.
  • AERODYNAMIC CONSTITUTION OF OPEN-HEARTH FURNACE (VIII)

    pp. 1194-1199

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    Results of the study on the aerodynamic constitution of the open-hearth furnace are summarized, standard dimensions corresponding to the capacities of the single air-uptake furnace are settled, and several circumstances bringing the results of the model research into practice are illustrated.
    When the capacity of a furnace is expressed by T, the dimensions and the rough estimations of the productive terms of the furnace are given as follows:
    A rational mechanism of air-fuel mixing will be established in the standard design selecting the proper jet-intensity which is controlled by changing the quantity of atomizing agent.
  • SOME STUDIES ON SEMI-KILLED STEEL (II)

    pp. 1200-1205

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    An examination was made of the correlation between the condition of subsurface blowholes ascertained by corner-samples taken from 4-ton semi-killed steel ingots with varied degree of deoxidation and the condition of the seams of the blooms rolled from those ingots and experiments performed further of the change of sub-surface blow-holes accompanying the scaling of the skin of ingots in the soaking pit.
    As the result, the relation between the size and the distribution of subsurface blow-holes and the depth of seams was clarified and it seems that in ordinary case the sub-surface blow-holes should be within 2mm from the skin or else the thickness of solid-skim should be made more than 5mm to prevent the forming of the seams.
  • STUDIES ON THE DECARBURIZATION REACTION OF MOLTEN Fe-C ALLOYS (IV)

    pp. 1205-1210

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    The rates of carbon removal of molten Fe-C alloys containing 0.5-4%C with water vapour of H2-H2O, O2-H2O gas system were measured by flow method.
    The results obtained were as follows.
    In the system of H2-H2O gas mixture, the rates of carbon removal were proportional to the partial pressure of water vapour between 7 and 32mmHg. The dissolved oxygen in the melt during the reaction was independent of the pressure of water vapour and in some degree higher than the equilibrium value. From these results the reaction was considered to take place on the interface. The specific rate constant was somewhat smaller than that with oxygen gas of the same pressure. The increased amounts of the carbon removal with water vapour in the addition of water vapour to oxygen gas were influenced by oxygen gas pressure. The oxidation of carbon monoxide formed to carbon dioxide in the carbon reaction with oxygen gas was remarkable, but in the presence of water vapour this oxidation almost did not take place.
  • ACTIVITIES OF Mn AND C IN MOLTEN Fe-Mn-C ALLOYS

    pp. 1211-1215

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    The solubility of carbon in Fe-Mn-C melts is determined at 1530±10°C in the range of Mn=40%.
    By construction of the following electrode concentration cell, the electromotive force corresponding to the change in Mn and C in Fe-Mn-C melts up to 36% of Mn content was measured at about 1540°C.
    Fe, Mn, C|SiO2, CaO, MnO, Al2O3|Fe, Mn, (36%), Csat.
    From this experiment, it was shown that Fe-Mn melts obeyed the Raoult's law but showed a gradually negative deviation from that law on addition of C. The effect of C on the activity coefficient of Mn was discussed by using the interaction coefficient γ(C)Mn. In addition, the effect of Mn on the activity coefficient of C was also discussed.
    Comparing with data of Fe-Cr-C melts already reported, it was shown that the effect of Mn on the activity coefficient of C was about one third of that of Cr.
    Furthermore, values of the interaction parameter, ε(X)C, which showed the effect of a number of dissolved elements on the activity coefficient of C were obtained in Fe-X melts saturated wit carbon.
  • STUDY ON INGOT-MAKING PRACTICE (V)

    pp. 1216-1222

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    Oxidation of molten steel during pit-practice is influenced with oxidizing velocities of various elements in it. The authors made experiments on oxidizing velocities of various elements in molten steel by air and the effect of the third element on oxidation and its velocity. The rate of the various elements removed by oxygen in air was measured and the velocity constants were determined.
    The results obtained were as follows.
    1. At all range of experimental temperature the oxidation rate of aluminium was most rapid as compared with those of other elements.
    The amount of the residual oxides in molten steel that were SiO2, MnO and FeO were decreased by reason of existence of aluminium.
    2. The oxidation of carbon was next rapid, but its velocity varied slightly with temperature and the carbon in molten steel behaved similarly with aluminium.
    3. The oxidation of high-carbon molten steel by air during its pourong did not act as the principal origin of non-metallic inclusions in steel. on the other hand, in the case of high aluminium content, the oxidation by air was expected to be the origin.
    They also mentioned of the relation between oxidation of molten steel by air during pitpractice and non-metallic inclusions in practical process.
  • DIRECT OBSERVATION OF NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN STEEL WITH AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

    pp. 1222-1228

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    It is significant to study on the inclusion in steel. The anthors tried the direct observation of inclusions in steel with an electron microscope by extraction replica technique using evaporated carbon film. The evaporated carbon film has many advantageous characteristics needed to act as extraction replica such as being amorphous, chemically inert and stable for electron bombardment or having large mechanical strength, etc.
    Some new techniques were used in operating extraction replica: (1) Cleaning the etched specimen surface. (2) Evaporation technique for carbon. (3) Separating the carbon film from the specimen surface.
    The authors observed some inclusions, that is, TiN, FeS, SiO2 and MnS etc, in steels by this technique. Moreover, for the purpose of obtaining the sharp electron diffraction pattern, they have observed the extractive (manganese sulfide in sulfuretted free-cutting steel) with a high-voltage electron microscope. As the result of increasing beam potential, some new effective facts were obtained.
  • A STUDY ON THE METHOD FOR REVEALING THE AUSTENITE GRAIN SIZE IN STEEL

    pp. 1229-1233

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    As the revealing method of austenite grain size of steel, usually, various technique such as carburizing method has been used, although these are not sufficient because of unquickness for determination, complex procedure, and difficulties caused by the influence of alloying elements.
    Authors studied on methods of carburizing-, graphite-, double quenching-, quenching-and oxidizing and found the metal diffusion method being easy for determination of grain size, and determined its application range.
    On the metal diffusion method, the new technique using lead as diffused metal was devised. The authors were convinced that the grain size could be determined by this method without the influence of alloying elements on any steels.
  • INVESTIGATION ON CAST IRON HAVING REFINED GRAPHITE PRODUCFD BY MELTING CAST IRON COVERING WITH SLAG CONTAINING TIO2 (REPT. VIII)

    pp. 1234-1242

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    The cast iron melts containing about 3.5% C and about 1.8% Si were cast in small moulds of current use in the previous experiments after addition of Ti in the form of metallic Ti, ferro-Ti and of Cu-Ti alloy. In the present scope of experiments, gray cast irons having the same eutectic graphite structure may be prepared in the present case as in the previous experiments where cast iron melts have been treated with the slag containing TiO2, as far as more than 0.05% Ti was contained in the cast metal in the form of TiC and the melts were cast at the temperature lower than 1400°C. It is doubtful, however, that the above mentioned result will be always obtained also when the larger mould is used for casting.
  • ON THE HOT STAGE MICROSCOPY (II) -A REVIEW-

    pp. 1243-1254

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  • 熱経済技術部会報告(II)

    pp. 1255-1263

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  • 抄録

    pp. 1264-1268

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  • 鉄鋼ニューズ

    pp. 1269-1269

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  • 国内国外刊行誌参考記事目次

    pp. 1270-1272

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