Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 68 (1982), No. 3

  • Single Crystal Nickel-base Superalloys from the Viewpoint of Alloy Design

    pp. 369-375

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  • 鉄鋼業の石油消費量の推移/マンガン団塊/先進工業国におけるMn,Ni,CuおよびCoの輸入依存度/主要諸国のステンレス鋼生産量/世界における主要金属資源の埋蔵量の偏在状態/主要国におけるイノベーションの動向/各国における研究費の負担割合及び使用割合

    pp. 375-375,382

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  • Application of Mass Spectrometry to the Fundamental Study of Iron and Steel Making

    pp. 376-382

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  • Continuous Cooling Transformation Kinetics of Steels

    pp. 383-392

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  • Ultra High Purity Iron

    pp. 393-399

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  • Effect of the Existing State of Coke Breeze in Quasi-Particles of Raw Mix on Coke Combustion in the Sintering Process

    pp. 400-409

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    The quasi-particles of raw mix for sinter were classified according to the existing state of coke breeze in them into the following four types; S- (single coarse coke particle coated with fines), S'- (naked coke particle), P- (agglomerated particle of fines as a pellet), and C- (composite particle consisting of are nucleus and adhering layer of fines) types.
    As a result of analyzing the coke distribution in quasi-particles granulated by the ordinary method, the percentage of S-, P-, and C-type coke was determined to be about 70, 10, and 20% respectively.
    The analytical results of combustion test of quasi-particles, sintering pot experiments and sintering tests at the works showed that improvement of the coke combustibility in the sintering bed was essential for reducing the NO formation.
    Increasing the percentage of C-type coke by the quick lime addition and changing S-type coke to naked S'-type by the divided coke addition had a good effect on the coke combustibility and decreased the NO emission from the sintering machines.
  • Analysis of the All-Coke Operation at Fukuyama Blast Furnace No. 3

    pp. 410-416

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    NKK's three large-sized blast furnaces have been shifted to all-coke operation one after another since January, 1980, and operation of the blast furnaces without liquid fuel was completely achieved in April with another tar injection furnaces. Regarding to the Fukuyama Blast Furnace No. 3 (3 223 m3), NKK decided to operate it with increased blast volume and higher blast temperature and, in making efforts to solve operational problems and to achieve improved operation, obtained some important findings. Based on the above information, all the furnaces are continuing smooth operation owing to proper gas distribution control and furnace heat control. According to the calculation based on operational results hitherto obtained, a productivity coefficient of approximately 2.3 t/m3/d is expected on a monthly average value basis.
  • Sulfur Distributior between Carbon-Saturated Iron Melt and Na2O-SiO2 Slags

    pp. 417-425

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    The sulfur partitions between carbon-saturated iron melt and Na2O-SiO2 slags with the Na2O/SiO2 molar ratio of 3/2, 1/1, 2/3, and 1/3 have been measured at 1 250°C and 1 350°C. The sulfide capacities C's[= (wt%S)·(aO/aS)] calculated from the sulfur partitions were found to be in the range 10-2 to 10-4 and their temperature dependence was not observed. These values were lower than the previous measurement obtained from the gas-slag equilibrium study at the basic slag compositions above Na2O/SiO2=0.50.7, but were higher than the previous measurement at the slag composition below this ratio. The sulfur partitions between carbon-saturated iron melt and Na2O-CaO-SiO2 melts at the constant silica content were also measured at 1 250°C. The effect of lime on the sulfur distribution was compared with that of Na2O in the plot of log (S)/[S] versus (Na2O+mCaO)/SiO2 ratio, thus resulting m=0.3. The significant amount of iron was observed in the slag phase after equilibration and the ratio of sulfur as FeS against the total sulfur in slag was found to be maximum at the com-position with the Na2O/SiO2 molar ratio of 0.9. Desulfurization and dephosphorization of the carbonsaturated iron melts (0.1%P, 0.05%S) by the sodium vapor produced by the reaction of NaCl with CaC2 were investigated at 1 300°C. Desulfurization was found to occur but no dephosphorization was found.
  • Mixing Time in Refining Vessel Being Agitated by Gas

    pp. 426-434

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    Correlation between mixing time (τ) and applied power density (ε) for gas agitation is theoretically developed from the view point of transport phenomena and the theoretical results were confirmed by the water model experiments. Fluid motion in the vessel agitated by gas injection can be classified into two major flows. One is a flow predominated by viscous force, in which τ is in proportion to ε-0.5 and τ does not depends on the vessel size. The other is a flow predominated by inertia force or turbulent viscous force, in which τ is in proportion to ε-1/3 and τ is dependent on vessel size. In the latter flow, the evaluation of the mixing length (1) is essential.
    Comparing gas agitation with mechanical agitation, the correlations between fluid velocity and applied power density are expressed by the identical formula.
    Furthermore, the procedure for scale-up is presented on the basis of data obtained by the water model experiments.
  • Mechanism of Separation of A Low-carbon Low Alloy Steel Control-Rolled in Austenite and Ferrite Two Phase Regions

    pp. 435-443

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    The purpose of this paper is to understand controlling factors of separations parallel to the rolling plane developed in charpy specimens when rolling is extended in α+γ two phase regions.
    Main results are as follows:
    1) Separation were found to be enhanced by the development of {100} and {111} textures, the formation of large texture bandings consisted of a group of ferrite grains having a common crystallographic orientation, and the presence of the local plastic flow at the notch root preceding complete fracture.
    2) Separations were found to increase the area of intergranullar fracture as the texture developes.
    On the basis of these results it is suggested that separations may be formed by the initiation of the crack along the interface between {100} bandings and {111} bandings resulting from the anisotropic plastic flow of these bandings.
  • High-Temperature Strength and Ductility of HK40 and HP Centrifugal Casting Tube after Long-Term High-Temperature Heating

    pp. 444-450

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    A study has been made on the high-temperature properties after long-term high-temperature heating of HK40 (25Cr-20Ni) and HP (25Cr-35Ni) centrifugal casting tubes which are widely used as reformer tubes in the steam reforming process or cracking tubes in the ethylene producing equipments.
    In the short time tensile testing at 700°C or below, there is a marked deterioration in the ductility of HK40 and HP after long-term heating between 800° and 982°C. At testing temperature above 700 °C, the ductility of HK40 is incressed by long-term heating, whereas that of HP is not affected by long-term heating.
    In the creep rupture testing, HK40 after long-term heating shows lower gradient in the log σ vs. log t curve than that of the as cast alloy and, hence, its long time rupture strength is markedly superior to that of as cast alloy. However, HP after long-term heating shows lower strength and higher ductility in creep rupture testing as compared with the as cast alloy.
  • A Fatigue Fracture Surface-analysis Map of the 18Ni Maraging Steel

    pp. 451-460

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    A fatigue fracture surface-analysis map of 18Ni maraging steel (see Fig. 1) is proposed using the condition of the aging temperature of 482°C and the stress ratio of 0.1, which consists of the quantitative information obtained from the analysis of fatigue fracture surface and the curve of macroscopic crack growth rate versus stress intensity factor. The map intends to estimate the mode of fatigue fracture, the rate and the direction of crack growth, etc. from a fracture surface of which the cause is unkown. The effectivity of the map for the above aim is confirmed using the other four kinds of testing conditions, namely the prior austenitic grain sizes are 11 μm and 25 μm, the aging temperatures are 482°C and 432°C, and the stress ratios are 0.1 and 0.7.
  • Transformation Kinetics of Bainite during Isothermal Holding and Continuous Cooling

    pp. 461-470

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    To obtain a general cooling transformation kinetics of steels from its isothermal transformation kinetic data, a bainite transformation has been investigated in present study. The main results obtained are as follows:
    (1) The isothermal transformation behaviour of bainite for the steel used in present investigation (JIS, SUJ2) can be expressed by the Johnson-Mehl type equation.
    (2) The bainite trasformation is retarded with an increase in the austenite grain size. The nucleation site of bainite is mainly on austenite grain surface but some homogeneous nucleations in the matrix are also found.
    (3) The equation expressing the transformation bahaviour of bainite during continuous cooling has been derived from the experimentally obtained isothermal transformation kinetics. It is examined that this equation well expresses the actual continuous cooling transformation behaviour.
    (4) The above result showing that additivity rule for transformed fraction is hold for bainite transformation during continuous cooling and cooling transformation behaviour can weell be predicted using the isothermal transformation kinetics.
  • Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel at Cyrogenic Temperature

    pp. 471-476

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    Low-cycle fatigue behaviour of 304 stainless steel has been studied at 20°C and -196°C. The results obtained are summarized as follows:
    (1) The low-cycle fatigue life depends on the mechanical properties which change according to the amount of α'-martensite induced by increasing number of fatigue cycles.
    (2) The low-cycle fatigue life curves (Δεt/2-Nf) obtained agree fairly with the curves calculated by Manson's equation.
    (3) The fatigue cracks initiates at about 20% of the fatigue life at 20°C, while it initiates at about 70% of the fatigue life at -196°C.
  • Creep Rupture Properties of Inconel 617 in Simulated HTR-Helium Atmosphere

    pp. 477-485

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    A study has been made of the effect of a simulated HTR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) coolant atmosphere on the creep-rupture properties of Inconel 617 at 1 173K.
    Carburization during creep in helium accelerated the growth of surface cracking, and led to losses in rupture life and ductility. This was characterized by the early onset of tertiary creep, and which was explained in terms of the reduction of net cross-sectional area by surface cracking. Similar premature failure was observed also in air. But the effect of air atmosphere diminished for the test durations longer than 1 Ms, when the internal cracks became dominant in the rupture processes. With increasing the amount of carburization the matrix strengthening became significant and increased the rupture life. For the test durations of 3 to 4 Ms the rupture life in helium became superior to that in air when the increase in bulk carbon contents exceeded 0.15%.
    The variation of rupture mode, increased amount of carburization and coarsening of carbide in long-term creep test were discussed to predict the creep strength in a simulated HTR helium under lower stresses.
  • A Predicting Method of the Creep Rupture Life of Nickel-Base Precipitation Hardened Superalloys from Chemical Composition

    pp. 486-495

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    The program for estimating the creep rupture life at 900°C from chemical composition has been developed on nickel-base precipitation hardened superalloys.
    In this program, the steady state creep rate (εS) and the creep rupture life (tr) have been estimated by Evans-Harrison's and Monkman-Grant's equations, respectively, which have been represented by the following equations.
    εS=B'{ (σ-σ0) /σ0.05}3.5 … (1)
    log tr+m·log εS=c… (2)
    σ, σ0 and σ0.05 are applied stress, friction stress and 0.05% proof stress, respectively. B' is the constant for all alloys. m and c are constants for each alloy. σ0, σ0.05, m and c have been represented as a function of structural factors calculated from chemical composition. Relationship between σ0 and structural factors has been led by the theoretical analysis based on the dislocation theory.
    About 80% of the experimental creep rupture lives have fallen within a factor of two of the estimated lives at the various stress levels corresponding to the lives up to 104 h as for twenty eight alloys. Especially, for cast alloys with higher γ' volume fraction, the creep strength has been estimated accurately by this program.
  • Influence of Various Heat Treatment Cycles on the Embrittlement of Blackheart Malleable Iron

    pp. 496-505

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    To clarify the embrittling mechanism of blackheart malleable iron, Charpy impact tests have been carried out for the specimens in the temperature range from -196 to 150°C, and also relationships between embrittled 50% energy transition temperature and various embrittling heat treatment have been investigated. IMA analyses have also been carried out for the brittle manner fracture of embrittled and nonembrittled blackheart malleable irons.
    The results obtained are as follows:
    (1) Considerable degree of embrittlement is recognized in specimens rapidly heated and then water quenched from 450°C without holding at this temperature.
    (2) There seems to be an embrittling temperature range above 375°C and a de-embrittling temperature range below this temperature.
    (3) Water quenching from 300°C after 1 h holding at this temperature shows some degree of embrittlement when separately treated, while this treatment after rapidly cooled from 450°C shows remarkable degree of de-embrittlement.
    (4) The brittleness resulted from water quenching from 450°C without holding at this temperature disappears easily by slow cooling from 450°C without holding at this temperature.
    (5) Remarkable segregation of phosphorus on the grain boundary of the brittle iron is recognized by IMA analysis, while no segregation of silicon, carbon and manganese is recognized.
    (6) Consequently it has been concluded that the segregating behavior of carbon having interaction with that of phosphorus on grain boundary seems to contribute to the embrittlement of blackheart malleable iron.
  • The Embrittlement of Ferritic Graphite Steel Containing Phosphorus

    pp. 506-513

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    In order to investigate the embrittlement of blackheart malleable iron, Charpy impact tests are carried out for series of ferritic graphite steel specimens having the same chemical composition as blackheart malleable iron except for carbon content. IMA analysis has also been employed on the grain boundary fracture surface of the embrittled iron.
    The results obtained are as follows :
    (1) Quenching from 450°C without holding at this temperature shows some degree of embrittlement, i. e. ΔTr+55°C.
    (2) Quenching from 450°C after 1 hour holding at this temperature shows remarkable embrittlement, while quenching from 650°C shows some degree of de-embrittlement. Moreover, it has been clarified that the complex combination of embrittling and de-embrittling treatments changes the behaviour of embrittlement in ferritic graphite steel.
    (3) Heat treatment at 300°C after embrittling treatment at 450°C shows considerable degree of de-embrittlement.
    (4) IMA analysis has detected the remarkable segregation of phosphorus on the grain boundary fracture surface of embrittled specimen.
    (5) It is assumed from results obtained that the segregating behaviour of carbon atoms contributes to the embrittling phenomenon of ferritic graphite steel by larger interaction behaviour of phosphorus atoms in grain boundary zone.
  • Evaluation of Quantitative Electron Probe Micro Analyzer with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry

    pp. 514-522

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    The accuracy of quantitative analysis was evaluated extensively for a commercial SEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer.
    For acquiring reliable X-ray spectra for quantitative analysis, several improvements of electron and X-ray collimation systems were required to eliminate extraneous X-rays excited due to scattered electrons and fluorescing X-rays. In the spectrum processing procedure, theoretical model for prediction of the background distribution was modified to fit the observed spectrum even at low energy regions and the deconvolution routine for the overlapping X-ray peaks and the low energy tailing were also improved.
    After these improvements, the absolute accuracy of analyses of 21 standard reference silicates (supplied from Smithsonian Museum) is found to be within ± 0.3%, which is comparable to the best measurements with conventional wavelength dispersive EPMA.
    Applications of this energy dispersive EPMA to some mineralogical problems in the iron and steelmaking process are reported.
  • On Emission Spectrometric Analysis of Pig Iron by using Triggered Capacitor Discharge Source

    pp. 523-528

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    On emission spectrometric analysis of pig iron by using a triggered capacitor discharge source, the influence of precipitated graphite on an analytical result and its prevention were investigated. The followings were obtained.
    The abnormal emission on the analysis of pig iron was caused by the preferential discharge to precipitated graphite. This preferential discharge was similar to that caused by non-metallic inclusions in steel. The preferential discharge was improved by the rapid formation of spark hardened layer, which was achieved by the prolonged preburn time or the discharge with high energyspark. The pulse height distribution analysis method was also effective for the elimination of abnormal emission. Consequently, pig iron could be analysed rapidly with a triggered capacitor discharge source, and the analytical precision and accuracy were comparable to those with a high voltage spark source.
  • 中学校の教科書における金属材料の取り扱い

    pp. 529-531

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  • 計算機トモグラフィ技術の応用

    pp. 537-538

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  • 抄録

    pp. 541-544

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