Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 60 (1974), No. 14

  • 競争と共同

    pp. 2077-2078

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  • Study on the Transition Boiling and Characteristic Temperature in a Cooling Curve during Water Quenching of Heated Metal

    pp. 2079-2084

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    In previous investigations the transition boiling phenomenon has not been taken into consideration in the cooling process of metals in the water. This study is aimed to make clear the transition boiling phenomenon by using silver rod being cooled in city water, and this transition region is shown in a cooling curve.
    Surface temperature measurements of rod and high-speed photographs of boiling clearly evidence the existence of an unstable transition boiling state between film boiling and nucleate boiling.
    It is proposed that the finishing temperature of film boiling is defined as upper characteristic temperature and the starting temperature of nucleate boiling as lower characteristic temperature in the cooling curve.
    It is also shown that the characteristic points on the boiling curve and vaporization curve are well correspondento the characteristic points on the cooling curve mentioned above.
  • Theoretical Model of Gas Flow through Parallel-Packed Beds with Two Kinds of Particles

    pp. 2085-2097

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    In the laminar regions, a theoretical model, which is named the cross flow model, of gas flow through parallel-packed beds with two kinds of particles is developed taking account of its axial distribution, on which basis the exact solutions on flow velocities and the pressures are derived. Effects of flow resistances through a distributor, particle size-ratios of each packed zones of the bed and a geometrical factor for the bed on flow rates and the profile and total losses of the gaseous pressure are shown.
    Due to the difference among flow resistances through the distributor and each zones of parallel packed beds, lateral pressure differences and hence gas flow (i. e., cross flow) occur and those become largest just behind the distributor.
    Thus, the lateral pressure difference is ordinarily limited near the boundary region between the distributor and the packed bed, although it tends to develop all through the bed as the particle size-ratio of each zones becomes larger and as the height-to-diameter ratio of the bed smaller.
  • The Properties of Petroleum Coke and Its Use in the Experimental Blast Furnace Operation

    pp. 2098-2109

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    The petroleum coke, which has the reactivity less than that of ordinary metallurgical coke, was used in the experimental blast furnace for the purpose of investigating the effect of the reactivity on coke rate. Some properties of this coke were examined and compared with those of ordinary metallurgical coke prior to the blast furnace operation.
    Following results were obtained:
    1) The effect of the difference of reactivity between metallurgical and petroleum coke was observed clearly at the temperature ranging from 900 to 1 100°C and the gasification rate of the latter was about half as much as the former within this temperature range.
    Nearly the same activation energy of about 60kcal per mole was obtained for these two sorts of coke.
    2) The effect of lower reactivity on coke rate was not estimated directly from the results of the experi-mental blast furnace operation because of the difference of various conditions besides coke reactivity be-tween the standard period and the test period. But the decrease of corrected coke rate from 688kg/t in the standard period to 592kg/t in the test period suggested that more than 23kg/t of carbon, at least, could be saved by the use of the petroleum coke.
  • Electric Resistivity of Molten Fe-C, Fe-Si, and Fe-C-Si Alloys

    pp. 2110-2118

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    The electric resistivity of molten Fe-C, Fe-Si, and Fe-C-Si alloys has been measured by the electrodeless, rotating field method. The results are summarized as follows.
    (1) The resistivity of pure iron shows a rise of about 5% in the process of melting and thereafter a linear increase with increasing temperature up to 1625°C.
    (2) For molten Fe-C alloys, the concentration range of measurement has been from 0.32-4.22%, the temperature range being up to 1500-1600°C.
    (a) The resistivity increases linearly with an increase of temperature.(b) The resistivity isotherm increases fairly steeply but monotonously with rising carbon content.(c) The temperature coefficient of resistivity exhibits a rapid fall at a concentration between 0.32% and 0.92%, showing little change at higher concentrations.
    (3) For molten Fe-Si alloys, the measurements have been made in the temperature range up to 1450-1580°C and in the whole concentration range.
    (a) The resistivity of the alloys with silicon content of more than 30at% shows a fall in the process of melting.(b) The resistivity shows a linear dependency on temperature. But the temperature coefficient of the alloys with silicon content of more than about 50at% is negative, except that of pure silicon.(c) The resistivity isotherm shows a large positive deviation from the so-called additivity law.
    (4) The resistivities of molten Fe-C-Si alloys with concentrations of 1 or 3% carbon and 2, 5, or 10% silicon have been measured in the temperature range up to 1450-1580°C with the result which is indicative of the possibility of the multiplying interaction of carbon and silicon on the resistivity of molteniron.
  • The Determination of Activity Coefficient of Sulfur in Liquid Iron by Knudsen Cell-Mass Spectrometry

    pp. 2119-2125

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    The Knudsen cell mass spectrometer combination was used to determine the activity coefficient of sulfur dissolved in liquid iron. The ion current ratios of dimeric vapor specy of sulfur and monomeric vapor specy of iron were measured as a function of temperature and composition, and the activity coefficients and the interaction parameters were calculated using a modified form of the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The results were represented by the following equation:
    e(s) s=-225/T+0.0704
  • Study of the Deoxidation Ability of Silicon in the Molten Stainless Steel

    pp. 2126-2134

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    Silicon is a prime deoxidizing element for stainless steel. It can be considered that the deoxidizing ability of silicon may be increased by reducing Asio2, under the basic slag. This effect, however, has not been understood clearly.
    Standing on this viewpoints, the study has been made of the SiOequilibrium for 18Cr-8Ni melt, and also of the effect of crucible materials and that of slag composition on the deoxidation power of silicon.
    The results are summarized as follows:
    (1) The experimental equations for Si-O deoxidation equilibrium for 18Cr-8Ni stainless melt are given as follows:(1)
    (2)
    The value of log Ksi at 1600°C accords well with that of the equation for Fe-Si-O system recommended by GAKUSHIN (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 19th Committee).
    (2) As to the effect of crucible materials on the deoxidation power of silicon, it is increased by the use of the CaO and CaO-SiO2 crucible, and the effect of Al2O3 crucible is considerablly small. The effect of MgO and ZrO2 crucibles is larger than that of Al2O3crucible but smaller than that of CaO crucible.
    (3) The deoxidation equilibrium of silicon under the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 (sat.) slag has been measured at 1600°C, and the relation between the (%CaO)/(%SiO2) and aSiO2 has been determined. The result indicates that the oxygen value by silicon deoxidation is greatly influenced by the basicity of co-existing slag and that the observed values of aSiO2 are larger than the ones estimated from the slag composition.
    (4) From the above mentioned results, it can be concluded that the deoxidation power of silicon in the actual stainless steel melt is increased by using the basic slag. However, it seems to be difficult to attain the equilibrium oxygen value that accords with the value of aSlO2 expected from the slag composition.
  • The Direct Patenting of High Carbon Steel Wire Rod by Film Boiling

    pp. 2135-2144

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    A new direct patenting method characterized in coiling hot rolled wire rods in a aqueous solution bath held at its boiling temperature has been developed. The unique idea originated from the discovery of the fact that the cooling rate of wire rod during a film boiling stage when quenching in hot water is comparable to that of conventional patenting.
    The remarkable features are as follows:
    1) The apparatus is so compact as it can be set up in an existing rod rolling mill without any trouble.
    2) The operation is very simple and the running cot is quite small.
    3) The cooling ability is so high as the tensile strength level of the wire rod processed by the present method is between that by lead-patenting and that by air-patenting, and large diameter rods up to 14#mm are available.
    4) The variation in the mechanical properties is sufficiently small as for general purposes except for high grade applications.
  • The Fracture Behavior of Notched Specimen of Iron

    pp. 2145-2152

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    Low temperature brittleness of vacuum-melted iron was studied through the evaluation of the fracture toughness, critical COD, and yield stress of smooth specimens as a function of testing temperature ranging from 20° to-269°C at static and dynamic tensile rates. The mode of fracture of notched specimens was also investigated in a scanning electron microscope.
    The results obtained were as followed:
    (1) The ductile-brittle transition temperatures determined by the cleavage percent of 75% were-122°, -68°, and-48°C for specimens tested at deformation rates of 0.5mm/min, 2m/sec, and 10m/sec, respectively.
    (2) The fracture strength of notched specimens was decreased with lowering the testing temperature below a critical temperature, which was equal to or somewhat lower the transition temperature determined from the above.
    (3) The fracture toughness obtained showed temperature and tensile rate dependences; it was decreased with lowering temperature and with increasing the tensile rate.
    (4) The ratio of critical COD to yield stress against the normalized stress fell on a curve for all specimens tested and the critical COD observed was larger than that calculated after Wells or BCS models.
    (5) The incipient cleavage crack formed in notched specimens tested at low temperatures was often observed to start at a point of a few grains inner from the notch root.
    (6) The effective surface energy calculated from the fracture toughness was from 1.5×106 to 1×107erg/cm2, which was about one hundred times larger than that obtained from the dislocation theory of the ductile-brittle transition temperature.
  • Growth of Cementite Particles in Austenite

    pp. 2153-2164

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    The coarsening of cementite particles in an austenite matrix has been studied in Fe-C, Fe-C-Cr, and Fe-C-Mo alloys. A quantitative metallographical technique was used to estimate the particle size distribution and the mean particle size. The observed growth rate was analysed using the Lifshitz Wagner theory. It was found that the coarsening process was fairly well explained by the diffusion controlled growth mechanism. A special interest was taken to examine the effect of alloying elements on the coarsening rate of cementite particles. The coarsening rate considerably decreased by a small addition of substitutional alloying elements. In ternary systems such as Fe-C-Cr and Fe-C-Mo alloys, the growth rate was found to be controlled by the diffusion of substitutional solute in the matrix as predicted by BJöRKLUND, DONAGHEY and HILLERT.
  • Tensile Deformation of Fe-1.5% Ti Alloy Single Crystals Bearing Hydrogen

    pp. 2165-2172

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    Single crystals of Fe-1.5wt% Ti alloy were grown by single-pass zone melting. As grown crystals and the crystals quenched from hydrogen atmosphere at 800°C were deformed in tension between room temperature and -196°C at a strain rate of 1.67×10-4 sec-1. The quenched crystals showed a prominent yielding phenomenon and localized deformation. At room temperature the yield stress of the crystals quenched from hydrogen atmosphere was approximately twice as that of as-grown crystals.
    The yielding phenomenon, subsequent work softening, and solid solution softening were discussed as the effect of the hydrogen clusters around substitutional Ti atoms.
    A low temperature aging test was done in order to obtain the information about the yielding phenomenon and hardening mechanism. The yield stress of the crystals quenched from hydrogen atmosphere was decreased rapidly by the low temperature aging process.
    It was concluded that hydrogen clusters around substitutional Ti atoms cause these phenomena.
  • Effect of Manufacturing Condition of Hot Rolled Steel Sheet on Formability of Steel Tube for Automobile

    pp. 2173-2184

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    The effect of manufacturing condition of hot rolled steel sheet on the formability of steel tube for automobile was studied.
    The steel tubes used in this investigation were classified by the tube sizes; 75∅×1.6mm and 45∅×5.0mm (tensile strength range from 30 to 60kg/mm2).
    The main results obtained are as follows:
    (1) An intermediate stage microstructure at the welded parts is found when carbonequivalent (C+1/7Si+1/4Mn) of steel is above 0.28%, and it is remarkable in the case of a higher tensile strength, thinner thickness tube.
    (2) The 90° flattening value and flaring formability of steel tube deteriorate when tensile strength of the material increases.
    In the flare forming test of thicker tubes, when the tensile strength of the material increases above 50kg/mm2, the position of crack transfers from the non welded part to the welded part, and the formability decreases remarkably.
    Expanding formability is more intensely affected by the non-metallic inclusions and the banded structure than by the tensile strength of the material.
    (3) The formability of steel tube is closely related to [Ceq(%)+5(S%+1/2P%)] of the material, regarding the expand forming, however, it is necessary to estimate the coefficient of S% and P% to be higher than in this formula.
  • Temper-Aging Embrittlement of Copper Bearing A533B Steel

    pp. 2185-2186

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    The effect of copper on temper-aging embrittlement was investigated using four heats of A533B steel. After quenched and tempered, each specimen was aged at 300, 400, 500, and 600°C for various lengths of time up to 1000 hours. The Charpy impact test was carried out and several specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopic and Auger electron spectroscopic studies.
    The results obtained are summarized as follows:
    1) A533B steel bearing 0.37% copper showed the temper-aging embrittlement which was similar, in behavior, to the temper embrittlement caused by phosphorous under the same heat treatment condition.
    2) The degree of the embrittlement was affected by aging temperature, aging time, and prior austenite grain size.
    3) After aging, the copper enrichment was found at the fracture surface by Auger electron spectroscopic study.
  • Optimisation of Composition and Rolling Variables of Tough, Ductile and Readily Weldable Medium Strength (30-42kgf/mm2 Y. S.) Low Copper-Niobium Steels

    pp. 2187-2202

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  • Recent Advances in High Damping Alloys

    pp. 2203-2220

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  • 抄録

    pp. 2221-2226

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