Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 44 (1958), No. 1

  • STUDIES ON THE SOLIDIFICATION AND SEGREGATION OF LARGER STEEL INGOTS (I)

    pp. 9-14

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    Upon the problems involved in the study of solidification and segregation of larger steel ingots numerous papers have hitherto been published. Nevertheless their nature is still vague from both scientific and practical points of view.
    The authors intend to throw more light upon this problem in a series of observations, measurements and calculations dealing with actual ingots.
    In this 1st paper, they report the vertical solidification rate of more than 40 killed, concave and octagonal, ingots ranging from 3 to 75 tons, measured by the bar-test method with 9mm dia. mild steel.
    The result showed typical solidification curves for various sizes, effect of composition upon the observed solidification rate, relation between solidification rate and nominal ingot size, effect of bottom shape on the solidification curve, change of temperature in feeder heads during solidification, etc. An analytical study on the solidification curve was also presented.
  • INFLUENCE OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CAST STEEL ON HOT-TEARING TENDENCY (III)

    pp. 15-21

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    In the preceding two reports under the same heading as this, (Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 40 (1954) p. 979, Vol. 43 (1957) p. 1293) the author described the influence of C, Si, Mn, P, S, Cu and Al on hot-tearing tendency of cast steel. In this last report he describes the influence of Ti, Sn, As, Sb, Bi, Pb, O, H and N, and finally gives a summary of the whole series.
    The results are briefly summarized as follows:
    (1) Titanium has little effect on hot-tearng tendency of low sulphur steel, but it has the effect of increasing resistance to hot-tearing of high sulphur steel. It will be more economical and effective to use titanium together with aluminium than to use titanium separately.
    (2) Tin has a very bad effect on hot-tearing tendency of such steel that shows good resistance to hot-tearing before addition of tin. Addition of 0.1% tin is found to be clearly harmful.
    (3) Arsenic has a similar effect as tin;
    0.1% arsenic is found to be clearly harmful.
    (4) Antinomy has an even more harmful effect than tin or arsenic.
    (5) Bismuth too has a clearly bad effect on hot-tearing tendency of cast steel, though it is known that little or no bismuth is soluble in liquid iron.
    (6) Lead is found to have no effect on hot-tearing tendency of cast steel, and this may come from the fact that lead is not soluble in liquid iron.
    (7) Oxygen in steel has no direct effect upon hot-tearing tendency provided that oxygen content is not larger than usual value found in steel before deoxidation with silicon.
    However, it is conceivable that oxygen gives harm indirectly to resistance of high sulphur steel to hot-tearing, because oxygen causes loss of silicon and aluminium which reduce the hot-tearing caused by sulphur.
    (8) Bubbling water vapour through melt of steel is found to have little effect on hot-tearing tendency. This means that hydrogen too has little effect.
    (9) Nitrogen in steel seems to have little effect on hot-tearing tendency.
  • STUDIES ON THE ROLLING OF SEAMLESS STEEL TUBE (II)

    pp. 21-28

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    Three principal components of loads in plug rolling of seamless steel tube, i.e. mandrel bar force, roll-force and roll-torque were measured by means of resistance wire strain gages. The measurements were made on Aetna plug rolling mill in Nippon Tokushu Steel Tube Co., Ltd. The electromagnetic-oscillograph records of mandrel bar force and roll-force indicated a gradual (nearly linear) decrease as a pierced billet proceeds through the groove (or caliber) of rolls, and those of roll-torque revealed a characteristic vibration of the driving system of the mill.
    Above experimental results, especially (i) the response of the driving system of the mill to braking torque exerted by a tube entering into and passing through the groove of rolls, and (ii) the relation among the three components measured, were analysed. An elementary theory, on which the analysis of the three components was based, gave a linear relation between (roll-force)×(radius of roll) and roll-torque, and this agreed well with the experimental observations; the coefficient of friction between tube and rolls evaluated from experimental data was 0.07-0.12 at rolling temperature (about 1000°C) of the tubes. Also, an estimation of pressure between tube and rolls was attempted.
  • STUDIES ON DUPLEX-GRAIN STRUCTURES OF AUSTENITE (I)

    pp. 28-32

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    Already described in the previous report of the same title. (Refer to the Part-1 p. 1307, December, 1957 issue of "Tetsu-to-Hagané".)
  • A NEW METHOD FOR REVEALING AUSTENITE GRAIN BOUNDARIES BY CORROSIVE GASES

    pp. 33-37

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    In the present investigation, the authors developed a new method for revealing austenite grain boundaries in steel. The method utilized a high-temperature corrosion by means of such corrosive gases as hydrogen chloride or chlorine.
    When a polished specimen was kept at high temperature in an inert atmosphere containing a corrosive gas, its surface was more deeply etched at grain boundaries and revealed austenite grains in a few minutes. This method was more simple than other methods.
  • STUDY ON THE SPRING MATERIALS (VII)

    pp. 38-42

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    Many materials were studied hitherto by the author as the spring materials for high temperatures, and these results were reported in Tetsu-to-Hagané as the 1st to the 6th reports.
    In the 6th. report, (Tetsu-to-Hagané Vo. 42 No. 4. p. 333-337), it was recognized that with the material corresponding to a die steel No. 5, the treatment in a hot bath at 600°C and quenching from 1100°C was confirmed as the best heat-treatment. In the impact hardness test of ordinary quench-tempered Si-Mn steel, the almost linearly descending inclination of impact hardness was recognized with ascent of testing temperature.
    In this report, the test was made on thermal expansion coefficient, impact hardness at high temperature and HRC hardness, impact value, fatigue test at room temperature with Si-Mn steel, and thermal expansion coefficient and torsional test at high temperature with die steel No. 5, and the results were summerized as follows.
    (1) The maximum hardness value in Rockwell C scale of Si-Mn steel, was obtained by quenlching at 900°C and tempering at 350°C.
    (2) The Izod impact value at room temperature of die steel No. 5, austempered at 600°C was superior to that of Si-Mn steel.
    (3) The number of repeatings by fatigue test with the Upton Lewis testing machine of die steel No. 5 austempered at 600°C was superior to that of Si-Mn steel.
    (4) The maximum torsional stress of die steel No. 5, was recognized by the isothermal treatment at 600°C×1h. in a constant bath and quenching from 1, 100°C
  • EFFECT OF NICKEL ON HIGH-CARBON HIGHCHROMIUM DIE STEEL

    pp. 43-46

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    The high-carbon high-chromium steel have been widely used for punching dies of silicon steel plates and other mild steel plates, and also used for materials of precise gauges, because of their small distortion characteristics after heat treatments. This feature is resulted from the fact that these steels are fully hardened by air cooling.
    From the general fact that the higher the quenching temperature, the larger the distortion ratio becomes, quenching temperature to get equal quenched hardness must be as low as possible. Standing on this view point, the authors studied the effect of nickel addition to such steel and found that about 0.5% addition of Ni was most effective.
  • INFLUENCE OF CARBON, NICKEL, COBALT, TUNGSTEN AND MOLYBDENUM ON PROPERTIES OF 9.5% TUNGSTEN CHROMIUM HOT-WORKING TOOL STEEL

    pp. 46-52

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    The influence of C, Ni, Co, W and Mo on properties of the hot working tool steel containing 0.3% C, 9.5% W, 2.5% Cr, and 0.4% V was investigated.
    The Result obtained were as follows:
    1) The addition of Ni lowered the critical point, and enhanced the hardenability remarkably. Ni, being a gamma-forming element, led to a decrease in the amount of ferrite existing at high temperature.
    2) The addition of Co raised the critical point and Ms-point and improved the tensile strength and impact value at elevated temperature at the higher quenching temperature.
    3) As the carbon content increased, the hardenability increased and the Ms-point was lowered. The tensile strength increased and the impact value decreased at room and elevated temperatures in parallel with the increasing carbon content. 4) The addition of Mo lead to the presence of additional quantities of ferrite at the heattreating temperature and decreased the hardenability.
  • EFFECT OF RAW METALS AND MELTING METHOD ON Ni-Cr ALLOYS

    pp. 53-58

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    Ni-Cr alloys and Nimonic 80-alloys were prepared by using raw metals of various purities by melting rapidly or slowly in a Tammann furnace. Some mechanical and metallographical tests were made on the alloys. The results obtained are as follows.
    (1) Even in a Tammann furnace, rapid melting enables C-content in Ni-Cr alloys prepared from raw etals of high purity to be lower than that in commercial Nichrome-alloys melted in a high frequency induction furnace. In case of slow melting or high Cr-content, for instance 40% Cr, in alloys, the preparation of alloys in the Tammann furnace is inadequate because of the carburizing action of the atmosphere in the furnace.
    (2) The lower the purity of raw metals becomes, the more both the C-content and the amount of inclusions in alloys increase. (3) It is found in Ni-Cr alloys prepared from low grade chromium that both the hardness and the recrystallization temperature are raised and that precipitation hardening may occur at 500-550°C.
    (4) The creep property of Nimonic 80-alloys is superior in the case of the alloy prepared from high purity metals, which is lower in C-content, lower in hardness at solution-treated state, less in amount of inclusions and coarser in grain size than in those of alloys prepared from low grade metals.
  • Automation in Iroll and Steel Industry-A Review

    pp. 59-68

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  • On the Combustion Engineer

    pp. 69-73

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  • 鉄鋼技術共同研究会報告

    pp. 74-80

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 鉄鋼技術共同研究会 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.44(1958), No.5
    2. 鉄鋼ニユーズ Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.44(1958), No.1
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  • 抄録

    pp. 81-85

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  • 鉄鋼ニユーズ

    pp. 86-86

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 鉄鋼技術共同研究会 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.44(1958), No.5
    2. 第57回講演大会講演大要7 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.45(1959), No.3
    3. 鉄鋼技術共同研究会報告 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.44(1958), No.1
  • 国内国外刊行誌参考記事目次

    pp. 87-90

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