Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 70 (1984), No. 8

  • Superplasticity in Ultrahigh Carbon Steel

    pp. 767-773

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 日本鉄鋼協会第108回講演大会 講演概要集(II) その8 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.70(1984), No.13
    2. 日本鉄鋼協会第108回講演大会 講演概要集(II) その4 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.70(1984), No.13
    3. 日本鉄鋼協会第108回講演大会 講演概要集(II) その6 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.70(1984), No.13
  • Fundamentals of Combustion Technique (II)

    pp. 774-784

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  • Dieless Forming and Thermomechanical Treatment of Steels

    pp. 785-791

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  • Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Steels in Wet Hydrogen Sulfide Environment

    pp. 792-802

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  • Fractography

    pp. 803-814

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  • Melting of Directly Reduced Iron Pellets Using Electro-slag Remelting Method and the Refining Effects

    pp. 815-822

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    A melting process of directly reduced iron pellets using an ESR apparatus was developed to produce sound steel ingots directly from the pellets. Oxygen and carbon contents in the ingot produced were as low as those after refining in a LD converter, when such deoxidizer as CaC2, SiC or ferrosilicon was used. An area ratio of nonmetallic inclusions in the ingot was lowered to about 0.05 by the continuous addition of SiC or ferrosilicon.
    Regarding melting behavior of the pellets, a theoretical analysis and temperature measurements showed that the pellet temperature rapidly rises near the slag pool surface and reaches the melting temperature near the end of steel pipe which is used as an electrode. The melting rate of a pellet in the slag pool increased with decreasing feeding rate of the electrode. Furthermore, oxygen decrease in a pellet during the melting in the slag pool and the deoxidation in the metal pool were discussed on the basis of the overall mass balance in the process.
  • Local Corrosion of Blast-furnace-trough Material at the Slag Surface

    pp. 823-830

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    Laboratory corrosion test of clay-bonded SiC specimen at the slag surface has been carried out in argon, argon-oxygen and air, in order to elucidate the mechanism of local attack of blast-furnace-trough material at the slag surface.
    The local corrosion arises only in the oxidizing atmosphere in the narrow zone just above the slag surface. The corrosion zone of solidified specimen during the progress of the corrosion is covered with thin liquid slag film. Supplying rate of oxygen from the atmosphere gives remarkable influences on the relations between the corrosion rate and dipping times, slag compositions, etc. It is estimated that the slag film, crept up from the bulk slag, plays important roles in the occurence of the local corrosion by accelerating mass transfer and causing the abrasion of the specimen due to its active movements in diffusion layer caused by Marangoni effect. SiC granules on the surface of the specimen are oxidized by iron oxide in the film into carbon granules, which causes Marangoni effect and also facilitates the dissolution and abrasion of the specimen. Some countermeasures against the local corrosion have been offered from the corrosion mechanism.
  • Manganese Equilibria between Carbon-saturated Iron Melts and Soda- and Lime-based Fluxes

    pp. 831-837

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    The studies have been made of the manganese distribution between carbon-saturated iron melts and soda- and lime-based fluxes. The manganese distribution ratios in the Na2O-SiO2 system and in the CaF2-CaO system were found to decrease with increase of the contents of Na2O and CaF2, respectively. The relationship between the manganate capacity CMn[=(%Mn)/{aMn·aO}] and the optical basicity Λth has been derived. It was found from the previous data on the manganese distribution ratios between liquid iron and MgO-saturated CaO-FetO-SiO2-MnO slags that the values for CMn, were linearly correlated to Λth or the mole fractions of slag compositions. The oxygen potentials in the practical operations of hot metal pretreatment have been estimated by use of these relations.
  • Rate of Oxidation of Liquid Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr Alloys with Pure Oxygen

    pp. 838-845

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    The oxidation rate of liquid Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr alloys with pure oxygen gas was studied by a constant-volume Sieverts' technique. The oxidation proceeded in two stages, namely, the first stage of instantaneous oxide formation and the second stage of slow oxidation followed. The present work was focused on the second stage in which three phases of gas, oxide, and liquid metal coexisted. The oxidation rate was greatly dependent on whether the oxide phase was solid or liquid.
    The oxidation rate of Fe-Ni alloys ([%Ni]=080) in which the oxide phase was liquid, decreased with increasing nickel content in the alloys and was proportional to the square root of oxygen pressure in the gas phase. Therefore, it is suggested that the rate-determining step should be the mass-transfer through the liquid oxide phase at the gas-oxide interface. The same behavior was observed in Fe-Cr alloys ([%Cr]=017) of which the oxide phase was liquid or liquid+solid.
    In pure Ni and Fe-Cr alloys ([%Cr]>17), the oxide phase was solid and the experimental results could be fitted to the parabolic rate law. Therefore, diffusion through the solid oxide phase is suggested to be the rate-determining step.
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    1. Local Corrosion of Blast Furnace Trough Material at the Slag-metal Interface Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.70(1984), No.6
  • Flow of Liquid Metal in High Freqency Induction Furnace

    pp. 846-853

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    Flow of liquid metal in a high frequency induction furnace due to electromagnetic forces was studied theoretically.
    Electromagnetic forces were calculated by LAVERS' model of which applicability to laboratory-scale induction furnaces had been confirmed experimentally in the previous study. It was shown that the force and velocity distribution under a constant geometric condition of the furnace were described by two dimensionless parameters, CI(=γ21μe(NIm/L)2ν2) and γ1/δ(=γ1(πμeσef)1/2), by considering the dimensionless equations of electromagnetic field and flow field, where γ1 is the radius of melt, L the bight of coil, N the number of turns in coil, Im the coil current, f the frequency, μe the magnetic permeability, σe the electrical conductivity, ρ the density, and ν the kinematic viscosity of melt.
    Velocities of liquid metal were obtained by solving Navier-Stokes equation numerically under the conditions of γ1/δ=1.03-22.5, CI=1.6×103-2.83×109.
  • Effect of Cold Working and High Temperature Treatment of High Carbon Chromium Bearing Steel on Its Rolling Contact Fatigue Life

    pp. 854-860

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    High-carbon chromium bearing steel tubes rolled in the cold pilger mill were tested in the thrust type rolling contact fatigue testing machine. Their fatigue lives were evaluated as influenced by cold rolling and also by spheroidization at high temperature heat treatment of sulfides elongated during cold rolling. Life of cold rolled tubes with a regular 70% of reduction in area extended more than three times as long as that of hollows and the same cold rolled ones endured over six times more than hollows when heat treated as high temperatures subsequent to cold rolling. It was revealed that nonmetallic inclusions finely dispersed by cold rolling and sulfides spheroidized by high temperature treatment as well contributed to a remarkable improvement in fatigue life of high-carbon chromium bearing steel.
  • Effect of Heat Treatment on Toughness of High Manganese Cast Steel

    pp. 861-868

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    Low carbon high manganese cast steels with various Mn contents were processed by Q, QT and QLT treatments to examine the toughness in V-notched Charpy impact and dynamic fracture toughness tests. For 5%Mn steel, the toughness was improved greatly by the microstructural refinement and the introduction of stable and fine retained austenite during the QLT treatment. The retained austenite is considered to give transformation induced plasticity. For 10%Mn and 15%Mn steels, the QLT treatment did not improve the low temperature toughness because of a large amount of epsilon martensite contained.
    The dynamic fracture toughness did not always correspond to the Charpy impact toughness owing to notch tip effect.
  • Analysis of Inverse Heat Conduction Problem by Finite Element-least Squares Method

    pp. 869-874

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    To determine the boundary condition of cooling process with temperature-dependent thermal properties, the method of least squares was applied under the linear constraints drived from finite element method.
    The method was applicable for the time-dependent heat transfer boundary.
    Some examples were shown in the case of laminar and spray cooling of hot steel plate; the surface temperature and the heat transfer coefficient were estimated.
  • A Phase Decomposition-calculation of γ'-phase Precipitation Hardening Nickel-base Superalloys and Its Applicationto the Estimation of Alloy Properties

    pp. 875-881

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    A program to calculate both the molar fractions and compositions of γ-and γ'-phases for a given average composition of γ'-phase precipitation hardening nickel-base superalloy is developed. The main procedure of the calculation consists of the formulation of both the γ-phase composition and Al concentration of γ'-phase as functions of γ'-phase composition.
    Microstructural and mechanical properties of the various commercial alloys can be well described through the parameters such as the values of average electron-vacancy number by PHACOMP, γ' fraction, and γ'-phase composition which are calculated by the above program.
  • Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties of 17Cr-5Ni-1Mo Cast Steel for Hydraulic Runner

    pp. 882-888

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    In order to develop a new hydraulic runner casting with a good corrosion resistance, studies have been carried out on some properties of several Cr-Ni martensitic stainless cast steels. The properties of a partial model runner casting of the developed 17Cr-5Ni-1Mo steel were investigated. The results are as follows.
    1. Internal quality of this casting is superior and comparable with that of 13Cr-Ni type casting in terms of cavity and macrosegregation.
    2. Excellent corrosion resistance is performed by higher chromium content and 1% molybdenum addition.
    3. Charpy impact properties are almost same as those of 13Cr-1Ni casting. This is attributed to delta ferrite.
    4. Enhanced fatigue strength stems from higher corrosion resistance and tensile strength.
    5. This casting also possesses good weldability.
  • Effect of Vanadium on the Strength and Hardness of Fe-Mn-Ni Age-harden Steel

    pp. 889-895

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    Fe-Mn-Ni steel is known for its small dimensional change during aging. For this reason it can possibly be used as a material for precision machine parts which are aged and nitrided after machining and susequently used without finish griding. The conventional Fe-Mn-Ni steel is however, too brittle to be used for machine parts. The purpose of the present study is to improve the toughness of steel and hardness of nitriding layer by adding vanadium.
    Effect of vanadium on the strength and hardness of these steels were examined. Alloys of various compositions were melted in an arc furnace in argon atmosphere, forged and machined to test piece shape. The specimens were water quenched from 1000°C and aged at various conditions. Hardness and tensile strength were measured before and after aging.
    The results are summarized as follows:
    1) In the series of Fe-3%Mn-x%Ni-y%V, the highest tensile strength and hardness of 165 kgf/mm and 580 HV, respectively, were obtained at 15%/Ni and 10%V.
    2) The concentration ranges of nickel and manganese being able to give age-hardening were not appreciably different between Fe-Mn-Ni steels and Fe-V-Mn-Ni ores.
  • Increased Susceptibility of 13Ni-15Co-10Mo Maraging Steel to Hydrogen Embrittlement by Aging at Lower Temperatures

    pp. 896-903

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    The effect of aging condition on susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement (SHE) has been investigated by means of tensile tests in vacuum and hydrogen gas for 13Ni-15Co-10Mo maraging steel. The SHE was correlated with the microstructural change as a result of aging. Tensile properties in vacuum were dependent upon the strength level alone, while those in hydrogen were dependent upon both the strength level and aged structure. When aged at temperatures below 475°C and the precipitates were smaller than 40Å, the SHE increased greatly. The increased SHE was considerably reduced by the introduction of small amounts of the precipitates larger than 40Å. Therefore, the abrupt decrease in SHE during aging is considered to be consistent with the microstructure containing a critical amount of the precipitates larger than 40Å. The major increase in SHE in the low-temperature-aging condition may be associated with the accelerated transport of hydrogen by dislocation and the increased adsorption of hydrogen at the metal surface.
  • Effects of Cold Work and 475°C Aging on Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel

    pp. 904-910

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    The effects of cold working and 475°C aging on corrosion behavior of the active and pitting region of duplex stainless steel have been studied in sulfuric acid and chloride media. The main results obtained were summarized as follows:
    In a 5% H2SO4 solution at boiling or 60°C, the corrosion loss and the critical current density for passivation of duplex stainless steels increased with the progress of aging and the increase in α content. The anodic current maximum in the active region was separated into two peaks with the progress of aging. This separation was observed obviously with specimens containing large amount of α, aging for long time and undergoing large degree of working, and that was attributable to the decrease in corrosion resistance of α. In case of a 5% H2SO4 solution containing NaCl, the separation of the anodic current maximum in the active region was not clear, however, preferential dissolution phase of specimens in active region was the same as that in the solution free from NaCl.
    In 3% NaCl solution at 30 and 70°C, it was found that pitting potential had a tendency to become less noble with the progress of aging, and by preworking before aging for specimens containing large amount of α. When unworked specimens were subjected to aging, pitts produced with anodic poralization occurred in α and grew preferentially in α.
  • 中学校教育における鉄の位置/鉄と子供と私たち

    pp. 911-915

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  • 抄録

    pp. 920-922

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  • 釜石市橋野高炉跡,ASMからHL賞を受賞

    pp. 981-982

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  • 乗用車における特殊鋼鋼材別原単位の変化

    pp. 984-984

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