Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 52 (1966), No. 6

  • 随想

    pp. 921-922

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  • Theoretical Consideration on Coke Ratio of the Blast Furnace Operation

    pp. 923-946

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    It is an obvious misinterpretation that GRÜNER'S theory-the unconditionally dominant position of indirect reduction-has been believed to be correct.
    In this report, the authors criticized the previous theories and established a new one on Coke (or Carbon) Ratio in the blast furnace operation.
    Three following conditions should at least be satisfied in order that the blast furnace operation can be performed, that is to say, the conditions of mass balance, gas-solid equilibrium and thermal balance.
    We can express the reducing reaction of iron are in the blast furnace by the equation, FeOn+X1C+X2CO=Fe+CO+xCO+yCO2 (1)
    Giving top gas ratio (γ=x/y=CO/CO2), X2=an and the rate in fraction of direct reduction (D. R), then the required carbon (X1+X2) is shown as follows:
    X1×X2=n (1+γ)(1-D.R) kg atom C/kg atom Fe (2)
    where, n is the rate of kg atom Oxygen per kg atom Iron in the burden.
    Supposing iron are only consists of pure hematite, accordingly n=1.50, then the required carbon can be calculated by substituting the values of γ and D.R. into the equation (2).
    Carbon ratio expressed by the equation (2) from point of view of carbon balance must be limited in consideration of gas-solid equilibrium and thermal balance. We investigated in detail these conditions, considered “Carbon Ratio Curved Surface” in the blast furnace operation and then decided its limitation.
    And we showed clearly that the attainable limitation when the furnace operation was performed ideally was about D.R 39% and γ 0.95, then carbon ratio gained was about 410kg per ton pig at blast temperature 1000°C.
    Therefore, the furnace operation should be performed at as near the value mentioned above as possible.
    After all, the equation (2) shows decreasing coke ratio of blast furnace operation with increasing D.R at constant γ and decreasing γ at constant D.R.
    We showed also the Equal Carbon Ratio Curve quantitatively.
    It can be concluded that we should abandon the idea of giving the unconditionally dominant position to indirect reduction and pay attention to direct reduction which plays an important part in the blast furnace.
    x

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  • Interaction between Solute Elements at Any Given Concentration in Homogeneous Multicomponent Solution

    pp. 947-958

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    The general relationship between activities and activity coefficients based on Raoultian and Henrian reference states at any given concentration was derived and the relationship among concentration quotients of solute activity at constant concentration and at constant concentration ratio was also derived.
    WAGNER type theoretical series expansion is valid at any concentrated solution, and Taylor series expansion using the interaction parameters at constant concentration ratio is also possible. The conversion equations between several kinds of interaction parameters valid at any given concentration in a multicomponent solution were derived by the aid of Gibbs-Duhem equation and Maxwell cross differentials.
    In a ternary system 1-2-3, the following relations were obtained at any given concentration:
    where γ(or f) is the activity coefficient in mole fraction basis (or in weight percent basis), N (or X) is the mole fraction (or weight percent), M is the atomic weight and the underscript signifies the component to be kept constant. It was also shown that the interaction parameter at constant mole fraction ratio β(j) i=β(i) j is valid at the condition Ni=Nj, and from this it follows that δlnγ1/δN2=δnγ2/δN1at N1=N2=0.5 in a binary solution. A discussion was made concerning the solution ironnickel as an example.
  • The Deoxidation with Titanium in Liquid Iron

    pp. 959-966

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    The interrelations among titanium, oxygen in liquid iron and deoxidation products at 1550°, 1600° and 1650*deg;C were studied.
    In this experiment, two effective techniques were developed. One is the use of a thermocouple protected from high frequency interference by an Mo tube inserted for the automatic temperature control and measurement. The other is the application of the Peeling method for the sampling of the deoxidation products for identification.
    The following results were obtained.
    (1) Primary deoxidation products:
    Corresponding the contents of titanium in liquid iron, a few kinds of the primary deoxidation products were identified as follows.
    Ti3O5 (anosovite): 0.001<[%Ti]<0.2
    Ti2O3 (α-Al2O3 type): 0.2<[%Ti]<2
    At higher titanium contents TiO seems to be produced.
    (2) Deoxidation equilibrium constant:
    In the range of 0.001 to 0.1% Ti and at 1550 to 1650, the reaction was as follows.Ti3O5 (s) =3Ti+5O log K′=-41, 470/T+3.40
  • Recent Development on the Isolation of Inclusions (Precipitates) in Steel

    pp. 967-980

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  • Development in Recent Steel-Making Technology in Japan

    pp. 981-988

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  • Development of Installation and Technique in Wire Rod Mill

    pp. 989-1000

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  • Properties of Pure Iron Deformed by Impact Tension

    pp. 1001-1001

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  • 抄録

    pp. 1002-1005

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  • 資料室だより

    pp. 1006-1006

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  • 鉄鋼ニューズ

    pp. 1008-1009

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