Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 57 (1971), No. 7

  • 鋳鍛鋼雑考

    pp. 1099-1100

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  • Desulphurization of Molten Pig Iron by Means of the Ladle Porous Plug Method

    pp. 1101-1108

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    A fundamental study on preliminary desulphurization of molten pig iron has been carried out by means of cold and hot model experiments.
    The results are as follows;
    1) The ladle porous plug method is one of the effective pretreatment processes of molten pig iron, and by application of this method, sulphur content in molten pig iron can be reduced easily and effectively, for example, from 0.04% to 0.006% under the selected condition.
    2) Desulphurization of molten pig iron by this method runs satisfactory when desulphurizing agent with proper size (CaC2 particles, about 3 mm) that does not cause the slag build-up phenomenon is used, and when the flow rate of nitrogen is as large as possible without iron loss. The most suitable arrangement of the porous plugs is the three-plugs setting which their plugs are set on the vertex of regular triangle on the concentric circle having a half radius of the ladle bottom.
  • Investigation on Decarburization and Denitrozenization of Liquid Iron

    pp. 1109-1122

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    Kinetic study of carbon and nitrogen removal in liquid iron has been made by examining separately or simultaneously the rate of decarburization and denitrogenization. Effect of the content of dissolved oxygen in liquid iron on the rate of decarburizing and denitrogenizing reaction has also been investigated. The liquid iron sample weighing 4 to 7g was kept on an alumina disc by applying a levitating power and the dissolved carbon and (or) nitrogen were removed by passing the argon with (or without) CO2 (or O2) through the reaction tube. The results obtained were summarized within the range of our experimental condition as follows:
    1) STEFAN-MAXWELL equation for the diffusion of the multicomponent system could be fairly well applied to estimate the rate of decarburization in liquid iron.
    2) When the content of carbon in liquid iron is higher than 0.1%, the decarburizing rate is controlled by the mutual diffusion of reacting gases through the gaseous boundary layer.
    3) It is considered that the reaction sites for decarburization are on the surface of gaseous side of the gas-metal interface.
    4) The rate of denitrogenizing reaction is proportional to the square of the concentration of nitrogen in liquid iron, and its rate is thought to be controlled either by the combination process between the adsorbed nitrogen atoms at the gas-metal interface or by the desorption process of the nitrogen molecules from the adsorbed sites.
    5) When the decarburizing reaction is occurred only on the gas-metal interface, the rate of denitrogenizing reaction is thought to be not affected by the rate of decarburizing reaction.
    6) The apparent activation energy of denitrogenization from the liquid iron is calculated to be 32 to 36kcal/mol.
  • Recrystallization Process in Low Carbon Rimmed Steel Sheets

    pp. 1123-1133

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    It was noted in the previcus paper [Tetsu to Hagané, 55 (1969), 1219] that the {111} components in the recrystallization texture of low carbon rimmed steel sheet could be increased by processing (cold rolling and annealing) from the hot-strip with fine precipitates of cementite.
    From observations on the isothermal recrystallization process it was presumed that the fine cementite precipitates affected the slip rotation of crystals, resulting in a change in the local distortion, and the nucleation of {110}‹001›-oriented grains in the {111}‹112›-oriented deformed crystals was suppressed so that the preferential growth of the {554}‹225›-or {111}‹110›-oriented grains was induced.
  • Effect of Titanium Addition on Planar Anisotropy and Recrystallization Texture of Low Carbon Steel Sheets

    pp. 1134-1154

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    Planar anisotropy of r value in 75% cold-rolled and annealed steel sheets was largely affected by the contents of carbon and titanium and the slab heating temperature on hot rolling. Planar anisotropy which was closely related to texture was classified into three types: namely, typeI, r45<r0<r90, with a texture similar to that of usual rimmed steel sheet, typeII, r0<r45<r90, with (111)[112](near (111)[112] or (554)[225]) preferred orientation, and typeIII, r0<r90<r45, with a texture similar to that of as cold rolled sheet. In the case of Ti/C atomic concentration ratio being less than about 1, typeI was obtained, and in the case of Ti/C ratio being considerably higher than 1, typeII was obtained, while it was not so much varied even though slab heating temperature was changed. When Ti/C ratio was about1, the anisotropy was widely varied from typeI or IIto type III, as the slab heating temperature was increased. Mechanism of the development of the above recrystallization textures was discussed in relation to TiC fine precipitates which affected recovery and recrystallization processes.
  • Studies on the Cold Rolling and Recrystallization Textures in Single Crystals of 3% Silicon Iron Having a ‹110› Rolling Direction

    pp. 1155-1166

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    Single crystals of 3% silicon iron with a common axis of [110] parallel to the rolling direction and with rolling planes rotated about this axis from (001) plane through angles, θ, equal to 0, 13, 22, 28, 35, 43, 55, 64, 78, and 90 degrees, were cold rolled by 60 and 80% and subsequently annealed.
    After cold rolling, the initial orientations of the crystals of 0°≤θ≤55° are macroscopically maintained and the orientations of the crystals of 64°≤θ≤90° are rotated into (111)[110]-[112]. The feature of texture, the dislocation configuration and the hardness of cold rolled crystal can be explained semiquantitatively in terms of calculated shear and/or rotation components of the tensors of the displacement gradients.
    Primary recrystallization at 600°C initiates earlier and proceeds more rapidly in a crystal as its initial orientation θ is approaching towards 90°. The crystals of 0°≤θ≤28° hardly recrystallize up to 1100° and large grains having a few restricted rotational orientation relationships with cold rolled matrixes grow at the edge parts of specimens annealed at 1200°. On the other hand, the crystals of (1) 35°≤θ≤55° and (2) 64°≤θ≤90° recrystallize into the textures of (1){011}‹100› or {011}‹211› and (2)(111)‹uvw› preferred orientations, respectively, after annealing at 600°C.
  • Formation of {011}‹100› Primary Recrystallization Texture in Single Crystals of Ferritic Iron Alloys Having a ‹110› Rolling Direction

    pp. 1167-1182

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    Single crystals of 3% silicon iron and 17% chromium iron alloys with a common [110] axis parallel to the rolling direction and with a rolling plane rotated about this axis from (001) plane through angles, θ, equal to 35, 43, 45, and 55 degrees were cold rolled by 60, 70 and 80% and annealed at 600, 700, 800, and 1 100°C.
    After cold rolling, initial orientations are macroscopically maintained. In the substructures of cold rolled matrixes, the small abnormal regions in which deformation proceeds by single slipping on the particular one of the slip systems having high Schmid factors are observed. The frequency of the formation of these abnormal regions is higher as θ of crystals and/or the reduction of cold rolling are increased.
    The primary recrystallization textures of the crystals are approximately {011}‹100› or {011}‹211›, and the sharpness of {011}‹100› texture becomes maximum in the 3 % silicon iron crystals of θ equal to about 45°, cold rolled 60% and annealed at 600°C. In the very early period of annealing, recrystallization embryos are observed in the abnormal regions mentioned above.
  • Study on Precipitation Hardening of Martensitic Fe-Ni-Si Alloys

    pp. 1183-1191

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    Age hardening behaviours and precipitation process of martensitic Fe-Ni-Si alloys containing 10-18% Ni and 0-5% Si were investigated. The results obtained are summarized as follows:
    1) Fe-Ni-Si alloys having lath martensite structure were remarkably hardened by aging in the temperature range between 300 and 525°C after water quenched from austenite region.
    2) When aged isothermally at 500°C or below, the age-hardening process of the Fe-Ni-Si alloys took place in two stages.
    3) The first stage of hardening, which was accompanied by increment of electric resistivity and slight contraction of lattice parameter of martensite matrix, seems to be due to the formation of solute rich clusters (or zones) in the bcc matrix. In the electron diffraction patterns from thin foil specimen, there were faint super lattice spots suggesting the clusters are ordered (DO3 type) ones.
    4) In the second stage of hardening, electric resistivity decreased and lattice parameter of martensite increased. Observations by transmission electron microscopy indicated that the hardening of the second stage seems to be due to the precipitation of a transition phase on dislocations.
  • Determination of Trace Amount of Calcium in Steel by Atomic Absorption Analysis

    pp. 1192-1197

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    An atomic absorptiometric method was investigated for the determination of trace amount of calcium in steel. With the use of N2O-C2H2 flame and of the inhibitor (KI+I2O5), the effects of Fe, Al, and Ti were eliminated and a directly determining method was obtained with a high sensitivity. The present method was compared with the emission spectrographic one and they agreed with each other. The acid insoluble residue was also determined and was in only a negligible trace amount, being under the lower limit of this method. Applying to calcium-containing low alloy steels and high alloy steels (18-8 stainless and high speed steel etc.) the results showed a good precision of the lower limit of 1 ppm and the standard deviation of 1.6-2.4ppm.
  • On the Emissivities of Molten Metals and Iron Alloys

    pp. 1198-1212

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    When we measure temperatures of molten metals and alloys by using a disappearing filament type optical pyrometer through the optical system, we have to make calibrations because the observed temperatures are always lower than the true temperatures.
    These calibrations consist of the emissivity and transmissivity corrections, since the emissivity depends on temperature, melt composition and measuring conditions, and the transmissivity changes according to the optical system used.
    The apparent optical temperatures of four kinds of pure metals, eight kinds of Fe-X molten alloys and seven kinds of Fe-C-X molten alloys were measured in the atmosphere of argon in the present investigation, and the emissivities were calculated by using the WIEN'S equation:
    ln(ε·τ)=C2/λ·(1/t+273-1/s′+273)
    where ε is the emissivity, τ is the transmissivity, C2 is the PLANCK'S second constant for the black body radiation formula, (14380μ·deg)λ is the effective wave length (0.65μ), t is the true temperature (°C) and s' is the apparent optical temperature (°C).
    The true temperatures of the melts were obtained by measuring the apparent optical temperatures of a cylindrical cavity in the magnesia crucible.
    The transmivities of the optical systems (i. e. prism or sight glass+prism) were determined by the aid of the apparatus “Prismeter”.
  • Heat Treatment Characteristics of High Strength 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo Steel

    pp. 1213-1222

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    An investigation was conducted to obtain the increased strength of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel by quenching and tempering, and were also determined the notch toughness such as Charpy V impact properties and the elevated temperature properties such as stress rupture strength of quenched and tempered 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel which exhibits room temperature tensile strength of about 80kg/mm2 (equivalent to the requirement of ASTM A 542 class 1 or of ASME Code Case 1414).
    The results obtained were as follows:
    (1) When the cooling rate from austenitizing temperature is less than 10°C/min, tensile strength, yield strength and Charpy V impact values at 10°C decrease rapidly. Tempering in the temperature range from 600 to 650°C decreases tensile strength and yield strength, and increases Charpy V impact values at 20°C.
    (2) The cooling rate from austenitizing temperature should be kept more than 10°C/min and the tempering temperature range should be taken from 615 to 660°C to meet the minimum tensile properties specified by ASTM A 542 class 1.
    (3) It is expected that the allowable stress values of the quenched and tempered steel up to about 480°C may become more than 6kg/mm2 higher than that of the full annealed steel.
  • Special Ingot-Making Process

    pp. 1223-1239

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  • Prospects of Welding Technology

    pp. 1240-1264

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  • Technical Subject of Ocian Development

    pp. 1265-1270

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  • 抄録

    pp. 1271-1279

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