Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 44 (1958), No. 7

  • A STUDY ON THE DEPHOSPHORIZATION EQUILIBRIUM IN LDCONVERTER

    pp. 733-739

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    Synopsis:
    The authors applied the dephosphorization equilibrium formula reported by Chipman to mostly the final slag and metal samples of the 3 ton experimental LD converter.
    The results obtained were as follows.
    (1) The observed values of Kp, dephosphorization constant calculated from oxygen in metal, were in fairly good accordance with Chipman's equilibrium values, while the values of Kp, dephosphorization constant calculated from (FeO) in slag showed a definite descrepancy from Chipman's equilibrium values.
    Furthermore the descrepancy increased almost proportionally with the increase of (FeO)% or T.Fe% in slag.
    Experessing this descrepancy as ΔlogKp'(=logKp'(ehip)-logKp'(obs)) the ahthors obtained the following relations statistically.
    (2) During the final stage of the blow, the oxygen in bath did not increase proportionally with (FeO) in slag and at the end of the blow the oxygen in bath was generally lower than the value predicted from the distribution equilibrium of oxygen between metal and slag.
    Therefore less effect of "after-blow" to dephosphorization could be expected compared to the bottom blown converter.
    (3) In the final slag of the converter there existed somewhat a definite relation between NCaO' and NFeO according to the operation condition such as the amount of lime charged, [Si]% of pig iron, pig ratio, etc.
    NCaO' tended to decrease with the increase of NFeO because of the dilution effect of (FeO).
    For the slag they studied, the following relation was obtained.
    (4) The relation between phosphorus-distribution ratio, logNCa4P2O9/[%P]2 and NFeO was calculated as follows.
    from Eq. (2), (5) and (4)
    from Eq. (3) and (6)
    With the increase of NFeO the value of logNCa4P2O9/[%P]2(obs) increased to a maximum value at about NFeO=0.3 but with the further increase of NFeO it began to decrease.
    This relation is very interesting when they consider the practical phenomenon that during "after-blow" dephosphorization is not so much improved in spite of the rapid increase of (FeO) content in slag.
  • THE DISTRIBUTION OF SAND MARKS ON THE PERIPHERY AND THE CENTER OF BEARING RODS AND PIPES BY GRADUALLY CUTTING

    pp. 740-743

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    Synopsis:
    In the present investigation, the authers have compared the number of sand marks of steel rod, steel pipe, from the same change, and extruded rod from another change.
    The results are briefly summarized as follows:
    (1) By the means of gradual cutting of steel rods, the total number of sand marks at any surface is almost equal, yet, many larger sand marks exist on the periphery of steel rod, but larger sand marks exit rarely at the center.
    (2) Sand marks are elongated by the rolling of steel rods.
    (3) Sand marks do not vanish by severe hot working, such as piping or extrusion.
  • SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE LONGITUDINAL CRACK OF INGOTS

    pp. 744-748

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    Observing the longitudinal cracks occurred in the killed ingots, the authors find two different types in their appearence and character, in accordance with the carbon content and the size of the ingot.
    One of them appears mainly in the round ingot of its carbon content below 0.18%, which is thought to result from the peritectic reaction in the steel, and the other is found in the square-shaped ingot for forging, carbon content more than 0.30%, which is believed to be caused by the heat stress and various stresses attended by the transfomation from γ to α iron.
    To protect ingots from the longitudinal cracks, therefore, the authors have to take the suitable methods to meet the situation based on each different cause.
  • ON DEEP-DRAWABILITY AND ANISOTROPY OF MILD STEEL SHEETS

    pp. 749-754

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    The study was carried out to get correlation between deepdrawability and anisotropy of mild steel sheets for deep drawing.
    Armco, Al-killed and rimmed steel sheets were used for samples. Deep-drawability of sheets was measured by Erichsen test and tension test, and anisotropic degree was estimated by observation of the ear-height which was formed in cupped specimen, types of magnetic torque curve and its harmonic coefficient, and directionality of strain in tension test.
    The results obtained were as follows:
    i) Generally, Armco sheet had the best deep-drawability and rimmed sheet had the worst, whereas anisotropic, degree of Armco sheet was the highest and that of rimmed sheet was in the least.
    ii) On cupping all specimens as received state, 4 ears were formed. Two of them form in the rolling direction and others form in cross rolling direction.
    Magnetic torque curves of them showed that preferred crystallographic orientation was (100)-[011].
    When test specimens were strained up to maximum load in simple tension test, width train (the percentage contruction in the width dimension) was larger than thickness strain, and the ratio of width strain to thickness strain of specimen which is taken in the parallel to rolling direction was larger than that of specimen which was taken in 45° to rolling direction.
    iii) The changes of anisotropies did not occur when specimens were annealed at 650°C or 820 °C for 20min, but they almost disappeared when specimens were annealed at 950°C above A3 point for 20min.
    iv) Erichsen values of Armco, Al-killed and rimmed sheets as received state were 11.2, 10.2 and 9.3 respectively, and elongation percentages were 46.6, 41.4 and 34.5 respectively.
    In Armco and Al-killed sheets which were annealed at 950°C for 20min, Erichsen value dropped 6-8%, elongation percentage dropped 6-7%, and tensile strength rose 8-10% comparing with them as received state.
    Nevertheless these phenomena did not appear in rimmed sheets. It seemed that these were related to the experimental results that the AlN in Al-killed steels (both Armco and Al-killed sheets) was increased as they were annealed at 950°C. In Al-killed steel, such heat treatment that eliminated anisotoropy would cause precipitation of AIN and deteriorate deep-drawability
  • STUDY ON THE METHOD OF TAKING A SAMPLE FOR DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN IN MOLTEN STEEL

    pp. 754-761

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    The method of taking a sample for determination of the oxygen in steel fresh from the furnace has not yet been established, although it has been the target of discussions.
    This report treats of the results of the study conducted on vacuum sampling method which is almost perfect and comparatively simple in operation.
    The sampler for vacuum sampling method is as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 and Photo. 1, and suction tube of the sampler has been made vacuous with its tip prepared as shown in Fig. 1
    In case of determining oxygen content in steel in an acid open hearth furnace, vacuum sampling method has been closely similar with bomb method but apparently different from casting method, which has generally shown higher value.
    While in case of a basic open hearth furnace, vacuum sampling method has shown a lower value than the cases of bomb method, suction method and casting method.
    It is diffiicult to draw a conclusion from the experimental results because the amount of gas released during solidification of molten steel is variable with its chemical components, temperature and solidification condition. It is presumed that some amount of gas may be released when carbon content in molten steel is medium and silicon and manganese contents are low, but in most cases the amount of gas released has been within analytical error.
  • ON SEPARATION OF HYDROXIDE, EXTRACTION WITH AMYLE ACETATE AND COLORIMETY WITH OXINE

    pp. 762-767

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    In the first paper, the authors reported Knorr'es method could be applied to determine Ce in the steel treated with Misch-metal added. In Knorre's method, however 1m. gr. is the utmost limit to determinable Ce amounts, and it needs to get 5grs as sample from the steel containing 0.03%. Ce. If weights of sample from high grade stainless steel will reach to 5 grs., it will be very difficult to dissolve in sulphric acid solution and will be needed a long time to electrolyze. Investigatin, therefore, must be taken about colorimetry by which sample is enough of relatively small amounts and micro contents of Ce can be determined.
    About micro contents of Ce in stainless steel added Misch-metal during melting period, the authors carried out colorimetric determination with separating as follows:
    (i) All rare earth metals were separated as oxide by HF as reported in first paper.
    (ii) Oxide was dissolved with acid solution, then hydroxide precipitated, from which Ce(OH)4 was separated with difference of PH and. CeO2 was produced by heating.<Br>(iii) CeO2 was dissolved again with acid solution, then pure CeO2 was produced by HF separating.
    iv) Pure CeO2 was dissolved with acid solution, extracted with amyle acetate, then carried out colorimetric determination with oxine.
  • DEGASSING OF STEEL IN VACUUM -A REVIEW-

    pp. 768-778

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  • PERSPECTIVE OF ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY ON IRON AND STEEL-MAKING

    pp. 779-794

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  • RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN SHEET MANUFACTURE AND SOME PROBLEMS IN CONNECTION THEREWITH.

    pp. 795-799

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    A number of new strip mills were and are being built in Japan, while the conventional sheet manufacturing method has almost become obsolete and is on the verge of being replaced thereby in the very near future.
    In the present study recent development achieved in hot and cold strip mills is described together with some problems accompanying therewith. And an introduction of an electrolytic tinning process is made as an example of the various new surface treating of sheets to be applied to strips.
  • THE RESULTS OF BLAST FURNACE OPERATION FOR FOUNDRY PIG IRON ON ALL-SINTER BURDEN

    pp. 800-807

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    The object for the foundation of Amagasaki Iron & Steel Mfg., Co. consists in the characteristics of high percentage use of home ores.
    These iron materials, pyrite cinder and Kanehira ore, were sintered after treatment of extracting copper.
    Such sintered ore is used for materials of superior quality with least impurities, such as phosphurus, sulphur and alumina.
    The effect of sinter, improved by a demand for No. 1 blast furnace operation, indicated good reducibility by incorporation of sinter in the blast furnace burden.
    In addition to sinter in burden, results of operation were profitable to reduce coke ratio and to increass pig iron production.
    With regard to allowable limit of copper contents in iron, sinter addition rates were limited as follows:
    1) For lower copper pig iron, utilizing less than 45% of sinter in burden
    2) For basic pig, 50-70% of sinter
    3) For foundry pig iron, 80-100% of sinter
    Therefore, all-sinter burden was performed only for foundry pig iron blowing.
    With the application of W. Oelsen curve on the studies of operating results for various addition rate of sinter in burden, the author proved that the higher sinter addition rate, the better reacting behaviors in furnace were achieved.
    As sinter addition rate is increased in burden, the effect of desulphurization showed better efficiency.
    In case of an all-sinter blowing for foundry pig iron, the author could not find any difficulties in desired control of the furnace.
    So that sinter, made from pyrite cinder, from the point of the merit of iron ore, was able to utilize the economically excellent iron source.
  • RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN ELECTRIC FURNACES IN STEEL INDUSTRY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    pp. 808-812

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    [in Japanese]
  • 抄録

    pp. 813-818

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  • 中国四国支部第3回講演会講演要旨

    pp. 819-826

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  • 鉄鋼ニユーズ

    pp. 827-827

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  • 国内国外刊行誌参考記事目次

    pp. 828-831

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