Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 59 (1973), No. 2

  • 製鋼現場技術習得の思い出によせて

    pp. 183-184

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  • Initial Stage of Reduction of Dense Wustite

    pp. 185-189

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    The reduction of dense wustite crystals quenched from the molten state has been studied over the temperature range from 600° to 1 00°C in order to investigate the rate controlling step of the intial stage of reduction. The reduction rate was calculated from the weight change of the specimen measured by a thermobalance. The change in iron concentration and the rerief of the surface of specimen with time were observed with an Electron Probe Micro-Analyzer (EPMA) and an optical microscope. The reduction rate was expressed by the rectilinear law R=k1t at the initial stage, and then by the parabolic law R=k2t1/2 at the middle stage of reduction process.
    As long as the rectilinear law was valid, the number of point-like reduced irons increased on the surface of specimen. As the reduction proceeded furthermore, the diameter of point-like reduced irons became large. When the point-like irons were contacted with each other, the specimen surface was completely covered with reduction iron. When the surface of specimen was covered with reduction iron, the reduction rate equation was changed to the paraboric law.
    It is concluded that the overall reduction rate can not be expressed by only one general equation for dense iron oxide, “Fe O”, because the micro-mechanism of the reduction process is not same for these three stages.
  • Self-Diffusion of Sodium in Sodium Germanate Liqiuds

    pp. 190-195

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    The self diffusion coefficients of sodium in sodium germanate melts with two different compositions were measured in the temperature range from 1 000°C to 1200°C by the instantaneous plane source method. Radio active 24No was used as the tracer.
    The results are as follows:
    for 30mol% Na20-70mol% Ge O2:
    D=2.1×10-3exp (-14200±5000/RT)
    for 40mol% Na20-60mol% Ge O2:
    D=102×10-3exp (-10500±3000)
  • A Direct Current Polarization on the Interfaces of ZrO2·CaO-molten Ag, Pb, Fe and Solid Pt-molten PbO-GeO2, PbO-SiO2, and Na2O-SiO2

    pp. 196-204

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    The mechanism of charge transfer process on metal-ionic conductor oxide interfaces was studied at elevated temperatures in various oxygen pressure range.
    (1) Following cells were made with lime stabilized zirconia as solid electrolyte;
    Ni. NiO or Mo. MoO2/ZrO2 CaO/molten silver, lead or iron.
    When a current was supplied galvanostatically to this cell, the oxygen concentration overpotential was observed on the zirconia-molten metal interface. A linear relationship between exp (2F/RTη) and √t was obtained for every cell. This indicates that the diffusion of dissolved oxygen in molten metal is the rate controlling step of charge transfer process on the interface.
    (2) A potential was applied potentiostatically between two of three platinum rods which were dipped into PbO-GeO2, PbO-SiO2 and Na2O-SiO2 melts. The supplied current across the examining platinum-molten oxide interface decreased with time. Plot of current i against 1/√t exhibited a linear relationship for every cell examined.
    The slope of the line increased with po2, with temperature, and decreased with the increase of SiO2content in PbO-SiO2 system.
    These results were interpreted as follows; The applied overpotential is the oxygen concentration overpotential and the diffusion of di-atomic oxygen dissolved in molten oxide is the rate controlling step of the charge transfer process on the solid platinum-molten oxide interface.
  • On the Measurements of Diffusion Coefficients of Nitrogen in the Liquid Iron

    pp. 205-213

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    Diffusion coefficients of nitrogen in liguid iron were measured with a capillary reservoir method in a temperature range from 1 550° to 1680°C.
    In order to obtain accurate date, the experiments were made under various conditions. The notices on the experiments were given as follows;
    1) To obtain an ideal concentration profile obeyed to Fick's second law, a crucible must be set on a place where is a temperature difference between a top and a bottom of the crucible with 10°C.
    2) The longer the length of diffused media is, the more accurate data can be obtained.
    3) The smaller diameter of the crucible is, the lower values are generally obtained, but when the diameter is less than 6mm, the effects of diameter on the diffusion coefficient are negligible.
    The results are summorized as follows.
    4) The diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in the liquid iron at 1600°C is obtained as, D=(0.92±0.10)×10-4cm2/sec.
    The relation between diffusion coefficient and temperature is given as following equation.
    log D=-3800/T-3.01
    5) The activiation energy of Arrhenius equation is obtained as, E=17.5 kcal/mol.
  • Solubility of Nitrogen and Equilibrium of Ta-nitride Forming Reaction in Liquid Fe-Ta Alloys

    pp. 214-221

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    The Solubility of nitrogen and the equilibrium of the Ta-nitride forming reaction in liquid Fe-Ta alloys under the presence and absence of Ta-nitride were studied by the sampling method at 1600, 1650 and 1700°C in the concentration range up to 25% Ta. Some thermodynamic interpretations of the atomic interactions in the liquid Fe-Ta-N system were also studied. The results obtained are summarized as follows.
    1) Tantalum decreased the activity of nitrogen in liquid iron and the interaction coefficient of tantalum could be expressed as the following quadratic function of tantalum concentration:
    2) When an improved model of statistical thermodynamics, which may be applicable for actual solution involving short range order was applied to the results, the theoretical values could be estimated to be in good agreement with the experimental values.
    3) In ternary iron alloy systems where the alloying constituents were transition elements j, a definite correlation was found between eO(j) and eN(j) asfollows.
    eO(j)times;102=0.278[eN(j)]2×104+0.994
    4) The tantalum nitride which appeared in the liquid Fe-Ta-N system was identified as hexagonal TaN (η) by Debye-Scherrer X-ray diffraction analysis. The standard free energy of decomposition was determined as
    TaN(s)=Ta+ N
    ΔG=70500-35.7T±260(cal)
    5) The values of γX(0) in liquid Fe-X binary system were derived by thermodynamic calculation and found a tendency to being more negative for the smaller atomic number elements in IV-a and V-a groups.
    6) It was found that there was a correlation between the bonding characteristics of nitrogen with V-a group elements in liquid iron and those in austenite
  • Effects of Niobium and Sulfur on the Activity of Carbon in High Carbon Liquid Steel and Relations between Interaction Parameters εxc and Carbon Potential

    pp. 222-230

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    Fe-C-Nb or Fe-C-S ternary alloy was equilibrated with the CO-CO2 gas mixture having a constant carbon potential at 1550°C, and the effects of niobium and sulfur on the activity of carbon in liquid steel were investigated.
    The interaction perameters at constant carbon concentration were determined as follows:
    (εNbC)NC, (NNb=0)=-63,
    (ξSC)NC, (NS=0)=11.
    The relations between interaction parameters (εXC)αC, (εXC)NC carbon potentials were discussed about 10 additional elements (X=Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ni, S, Sn, V, W) at 1550°C, and estimated as the function of carbon concentration.
  • Manufacture of Ti-stabilized Extra Low Carbon Steel for Deep Drawing Quality

    pp. 231-240

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    Ti-stabilized extra-low carbon steel sheet has excellent deep drawability.
    A series of investigations on vacuum decarburization, deoxidation and Ti addition has been carried out. The followings have been found through these trials, and Ti-stabilized steel (≤0.006%C) has been successfully manufactured.
    (1) In order to obtain extra-low carbon content, it is necessary that the DH vessel bottom should have a large area and a shallow steel bath.
    (2) To obtain suitable Ti content, complete Al deoxidation is necessary before Ti addition.
    (3) Too long DH treatment after alloy additions is ineffective to eliminate oxide inclusion.
    (4) Much amount of oxide inclusion is located near the skin of an ingot, and can be cut off by hot scarfing after slabbing.
    (5) Petrolic mold coating material or a cast iron stool causes an increase in carbon content of ingots.
  • Initial Stages of Recrystallization in Aluminum Killed Steel Sheets as Observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    pp. 241-260

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    In the previous paper [Trans. ISIJ, 11 (1971), 201], the authors reported several results of the electron-microscopic observation on local orientation distributions around large dislocation-free subgrains with their {111} planes parallel to the rolling plane in aluminum-killed steel sheets at the initial stages of recrystallization. The present paper is concerned with the similar observation on the dislocationfree subgrains with their {100}, {110} or {113} planes parallel to the rolling plane. From a large number of data on the local orientation distribution at the initial stages of recrystallization, it is concluded that the recrystallization texture of the aluminum-killed steel sheet developes as a result of the effect of A1N clusters which inhibit the ‘nucleation’ of recrystallized grains from severely bent regions of the deformed matrix and induce the ‘oriented nucleation’ of the {111}‹011›-oriented grains from weakly twisted regions of the deformed matrix.
    x

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  • Study of the Precipitation of χ-carbide in the Tempering Process of Some Low and Medium Carbon Steels

    pp. 261-271

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    Observations by transmission electron microscopy have been made on some quenched and tempered carbon steels containing 0.017%, 0.15%, and 0.48% carbon, to clarify the precipitation of χ-carbide in lower carbon steels, which was clearly found during tempering of some high carbon steel by the present authors.
    The main results obtained are summarized as follows:
    (1) There exists X-carbide in the tempering processes of low (0.017%, 0.15%C) and medium (0.48%C) carbon steels.
    (2) The habit plane of the χ-carbide in the medium carbon steel is (112) a, suggesting that the carbide may precipitate preferentially on martensite twin boundaries.
    (3) The orientation relationship of the χ-carbide with ferrite matrix of low and medium carbon steels is approximately expressed as (100)χ//(121)α, (010)χ//(101)α, and [001]χ//[111]α.
  • On the Strengthening of Age-Hardenable Austenitic Non-Magnetic Steels

    pp. 272-283

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    The present study aims at reducing the reducing the grain boundary brittlenient caused by the preferential precipitation of carbide on grain boundaries and at strengthening age-hardenableaustenitic steels. An investigation was made on the effect of the thermo-mechanical-treatment on theproperties of Mn-Cr and Mn-Ni-Cr type austenitic steels containing V by means of the mechanical test andthe microscopic method. The results obtained are as follows:
    1) Although the strengths of 0.4C-17-Mn-12Cr-2Ni-2V and 0.4C-13Mn-8Ni-5Cr-2V steels areraised remarkably by aging, these steels are susceptible to the preferential precipitation on grainboundaries, so that the values of the elongation and the reduction of area fall down drastically. From the observation of the fractured surface, it is found that the fracture generates alonggrain boundaries.
    2) The preliminary cold working gives good effects upon the mechanical properties of the twosteels after aging treatment; it increases the strength and the ductility.
    3) The preliminary working contributes to decreasing the grain boundary embrittlement that isdeveloped when age-hardening occurs.
    4) By the combination of the preliminary hot working process and the aging treatment, the two steels show the higher strength and ductility.
  • Structure and Impact Property of Cast Steel

    pp. 284-292

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    Impact tests were carried out using cast steels with different carbon and silicon contents. Time-load curves were measured at the same time. Cracks and fractured surfaces were observed by an optical and a scanning electron microscopes. Observations of macro and micro-structures and a measurement of austenite grain size in different quench temperature were also carried out. The results obtained are as follows:(1) Impact values of the cast steels increase with decreases of carbon and silicon contents and they show a maximum when C+1/4 Si is about 0.2-0.3%. The impact value is the greatest near the chilled surface and decreases near the sand mould and at the center of the cast steel piece in this order.(2) From the time-load curves, it can be seen that the fracture mode is brittle. More than 60% of the impact energy at room temperature is consumed in the initiation of crack and the energy for propagation is small.(3) Most of the fractured surfaces consist of cleavage facets. The size of cleavage facet is equal to the ferrite length and they vary inversely as the impact value.(4) It is often recognized that the crack propagates along a ferrite platelet.(5) The austenite grain size becomes coarser during cooling and it is influencedby the quench temperature above 1200°C.
  • The Effect of Alloying Elements on Atmospheric Corrosion of High Tensile Strength Steels

    pp. 293-300

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    High tensile strength steels used for the outdoor constructions are required to possess a good atmospheric corrosion resistance. The specimens of high tensile strength steels containing various amounts of C, Si, Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo, Ti, Nb, Zr, B, and Cu were exposed to the atmosphere at Amagasaki and Kitakyushu up to five years. The effects of the alloying elements on the atmopheric corrosion resistance of the steels were analysed by means of the multiple regression analysis.
    Corrosion rates of the steels are expressed by the equation,
    W=kt/(n+t)
    whre w: corrosion loss (μ), t: exposure time (year) andk, n: constants. kandkare given by the following equations.
    At Amagasaki,
    k(μ)=182.2-54.7 Si-41.6 Cr-11.1 Ni-87.0 Mo-39.8 Cu-52.2 Nb
    n(year)=2.46-0.98Cr-1.20Mo
    At Kitakyushu,
    k(μ)=247.9-106.6 Si-28.4 Cr-27.5 Ni-65.4 Mo-41.2 Cu-7071B
    n(year)=2.90-1-2.4Si-0.32 Cr-0.74 Mo-42.50 P-77.64B
    where Si, Cr etc. indicate the contents of the alloying elements in wt %. The effects of the alloying elements on the pitting depth were also analysed; Si, Ni, and Cu reduced the depth of pits.
  • On the Total Heat Exchange Factor of the Slab Reheating Furnace Basing on the Slab Reheating Experiment

    pp. 301-307

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    A study has been made of the total heat exchange factor in the steel slab reheating furnace based on the experimental data and the radiation heat transfer theory.
    The total heat exchange factor φCG can be estimated as follows:
    φCG=0.64 for heavy oil firing, and φCG=0.3 for gas firing
    when the furnace gas temperature is determined by the readings of the thermocouple inserted into the furnace combustion chamber through the furnace wall.
    By a heat transfer simulation using the value of φCG, an examination was made on HAYS'S experimental formula for the furnace retention time of slabs.
  • Plasticity of Steels during Martensite Transformation and Quench Cracking in Heat Treatment of Steel

    pp. 308-312

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    By applying an impact tensile load to steels at various stages of the transformation from austenite to martensite, the plasticities of low alloy steels during quenching determined in terms of the reduction of area. The results obtained are as follows.
    1. The plasticity of the steels decreased rapidly as the martensitic transformation proceeded, and recovered somewhat after the completion of transformation, thus exhibiting a minimum.
    2. The mini-num plasticity depended on the carbon content of the steel, decreasing with increasing the carbon content and becoming nil at 0.47%C.
    3. By examining those plasticity values in regard to the theoretically evaluated internal quench stress values, the quench cracking tendency of a steel could be anticipated, and the safety limit for water quenching could be established. This was successfully applied to medium carbon low alloy steels of various sizes and weights.
  • Spectrophotometric Determination of Micro-amounts of Sulfide on the Surface of Tin-plated Articles by the Methylene-blue Method

    pp. 313-317

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    This paper describes about an analytical method for evaluating the degree of sulfide stain on the surface of tin-plated articles treated with sulfur-containing solutions. The method is based on the difference in the solubilities of the sulfide and the iron matrix in a dilute hydrochloric acid.
    The outline of procedure is as follows:
    To disslove all the sulfide on the surface, the sample is treated with 20ml of 2N hyrdochloric acid at room temperature for 20 minutes under passing nitrogen gas. The evolved hydrogen sulfide is absorbed in a zinc acetate solution and caught as zinc sulfide. Then methylene blue is formed by the reaction of the sulfide ion with P-aminodimethylaniline in the presence of ferric chloride. The microamounts of sulfide on the surface of the sample is determined by measuring the absorbance of the methylene-blue at 660mμ.
    By this method, several samples (sulfide-treated tin-platings) were analysed and the satisfactory results were obtained.
  • On the Properties of Iron Oxide Pellets during the Reduction

    pp. 318-334

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  • On Neutron Irradiation Tests for Steel Wires for Prestressed Concrete Reactor Pressure Vessel

    pp. 335-348

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  • 抄録

    pp. 349-354

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  • 装入物の性状と高炉操業

    pp. A1-A12

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  • 連続鋳造の凝固について

    pp. A13-A21

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  • 連続鋳造の凝固について

    pp. A22-A32

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  • 熱延原板性状が冷延鋼板の形状におよぼす影響について

    pp. A33-A44

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  • 非調質高張力綱の制御圧延

    pp. A45-A59

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  • 鉄鋼中の不純物と格子欠陥

    pp. A60-A75

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