Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 45 (1959), No. 11

  • Effect of Gangue Components of Mixed Iron Ores on the Removal of Arsenic in Limonite

    pp. 1231-1236

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    Limonite, produced in Hokkaido, contains arsenic.
    As arsenic cannot be removed during the refining process in both blast furnaces and open hearth furnaces, must be removed during the ore beneficiation process.
    Limonite is normally sintered after mixing with foreign ores to remove arsenic.
    During the process the gangue in mixed ores are considered to have some effects on the arsenic removal. In the present investigation the gangue was divided in three groups: acidic. (SiO2, TiO2), neutral (Al2O3) and basic compound (CaO, MgO), and the effect of these groups on the arsenic removal reaction was investigated.
    The following results were obtained:
    (1) Acidic compounds such as SiO2 and TiO2 had only a little hindering effect on arsenic removal. Especially the effect of SiO2 at a high temperature of 1300°C was very little.
    (2) Neutral compounds such as Al2O3 also had only a little hindering effect on arsenic removal.
    (3) Basic compounds such as CaO and MgO had a detrimental effect on arsenic removal and even the co-existence of small content of them decreased rapidly the arsenic removal ratio. The effect of MgO was rather little as compared with that of CaO especially at a high temperature of 1300°C.
    (4) The behavior of arsenic in Dungun iron ore was very similar to that in Hokkaido limonite.
  • Effects of Various Factors on the Rate of Desulfurization of Molten Pig Iron with Solid Lime.

    pp. 1236-1241

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    Effects of various factors on the rate of desulfurization of molten pig iron with solid lime were studied with the following results:
    1) Desulfurization hardly proceeded in the oxidizing atmosphere consisting of argon and carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
    2) The desulfurization reaction of molten Fe-C-S alloy in a neutral or a reducing atmosphere was found to be of the 1st order with respect to the sulfur content of iron at the very beginning of the reaction.
    3) The rate of desulfurization in the atmosphere of Ar was equal to that in CO. The rate in town gas was 3 times as much as others.
    4) Contact surface between lime and molten iron has remarkable effects on the rate of desulfurization. To attain effective desulfurization the lime should be finely pulverized and large contact surface relative to the mass of iron should be given.
    5) The rate of desulfurization increased with increasing temperature. The relationship of the rate to temperature could be expressed with the so-called Arrhenius' equation.
    6) The rate of desulfurization was increased with increasing Si content of iron. In case when iron contained silicon, the reaction was found not to be of the 1st order. The effect of Si content was increased as the reaction proceeds.
    x

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    2. Formation Process of White Etching Area under Rolling Contact in Bearing Steel Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.89(2003), No.7
    3. 日本鉄鋼協会第57回講演大会講演大要13 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.45(1959), No.3
  • Preliminary Experiment on Elimination of Cr from Molten Pig Iron by Bessemerizing

    pp. 1241-1247

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    In 1952, a test on the elimination of Cr from molten pig iron was done with a 3 ton testing blast furnace of Yawata Iron & Steel Works. By this test, it was found possible to remove Cr from molten iron in the hearth by bessemerizing it under the condition of low temperature.
    In 1954, some fundamental experiments were performed to determine the factors affecting the behavior of Cr during bessemerizing, particularly, the most favorable temperature for Cr-elimination using an 150kW H.F. electric furnace. For this purpose, air or O2-enriched air was blown into the molten iron bath with various proportions of water to maintain bath temperature nearly at several intended levels and the change of bath composition during the bessemerizing was observed.
    The results of this experiments were as follows:
    1) The lower temperature was favorable for Cr-elimination, the upper limit of which was determind by initial Si-content of the bath. (about 1350° for 0.5% of initial Si).
    2) The lower initial content of Si was favorable. If initial Si-content was lower, however, it needed to maintain bath temperature lower to prevent decarbonization which always accompanied desiliconization more or less.
    3) As bessemerizing gas, O2-enriched air was more efficient than air.
    4) It was desirable to limit initial content of Mn under 0.8%, as it made difficult to remove Cr.
  • Effect of Carbon in Molten Steel and Gaseous Oxygen on the Rate of Decarbonization

    pp. 1248-1254

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    To study the kinetics of decarbonization in molten steel precisely, a high-frequency induction furnace in which atmosphere could be controlled during experiments was made in a laboratory, and the effect of carbon in molten steel and gaseous oxygen on the rate of decarbonization in molten steel was studied. In this experiments, 1.4kg of electrolytic iron was melted in a pure MgO crucible under flow of 100% argon gas, and after adding appropriate amount of carbon to molten iron, the concentration of gaseous oxygen in flowing argon gas was appropriately controlled constantly at 0, 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16 and 20%. Then the rate of decarbonization between 0-0.80% C was measured by sampling from molten steel every 15 minutes at 1600°C under flow of gas, oxygen concentration of which was constant. The following results were obtained.
    (1) The constant rate of decarbonization was recognized, also when atmosphere was 100% argon. This reaction of decarbonization caused by reaction of the C in molten steel with the crucible wall (MgO).
    (2) C>0.15%; when the concentration of gaseous oxygen was constant, the rate of decarbonization (this rate was a difference between the total rate of decarbonization which was measured and the rate of decarbonization by the crucible wall (MgO). The following rates were the same.) was constant in spite of the concentration of carbon in molten steel.
    (3) C<0.15%; the rate of decarbonizaton dropped rapidely and apProached zero. This tendency was similar to the case of open hearth furnaces.(4) When the concentration of gaseous oxygen increased from 0% to 10%, the rate of decarbonization increased gradually. But since it was more than 10%, the rate became approximately constant, and the oxide-film was recognized on free surface of molten steel when concentration of C became under 0.15%.
    (5) In this experiments, C-O relation was under the Vacher & Hamilton's curve, and concentration of O increased rapidly when the concentration of C became under 0.15%.
  • Operation of the Water-Cooled Converter (Part 2)

    pp. 1255-1260

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    In previous report (Vol. 45, 1959, p. 699) the authors reported the results of experiments on a small converter with water-cooled tuyeres and jackets. In this report, they reported the water-cooled converter practice to estimate the application of this method and following results were obtained.
    By application of a side-blown converter process, low P steel was made while the C was still high by the choice of refining operation. One of the objectives of the experiment was the production of low Cr steel from pig iron that contained medium Cr. The result showed that this process had a strong ability to eliminate Cr completely in refining stage of the heat.
    In general, it was important to investigate the characteristics of the refractory meterials for patching. This was examined by microstructure-test. Another test was made with a baby water-cooled converter which was designed as 5kg capacity. From the results it was found that the refractory lining in a converter was eroded by dynamic streams of metal, slag and blast, and especially the action of slag must be emphasized.
  • Studies on Core Zone in Capped Steel Ingots

    pp. 1261-1264

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    In sequence of the previous report (Tetsu-to-Hagane, Vol. 45, 1959, 1139-1144) concerning surface conditions of the capped ingot, features of core zone in a capped ingot were examined and investigation was made about effect of ingot weight, degree of deoxidation and another factors upon segregation. The following results were obtained:
    1. The segregation in core zone of a capped steel ingot was less pronounced than that of a rimmed steel ingot.
    2. In a capped ingot, the degree of maximum segregation was increased with the amount of Al added in the ladle, but it was generally less pronounced and the maximum segregated zone was narrower than in a rimmed steel ingot.
  • Effect of Various Alloying Elements on Notch-Sensitivity of 2%-Mn High-Strength Steel

    pp. 1265-1272

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    The authors studied upon the influence of various alloying elements on notch-sensitivity of low-manganese high-strength steel, standard composition of 0.28% C, 2.00% Mn, 0.5% Cr and 0.3% Mo, mainly by V-notch Charpy impact test at -40°C. The notch-sensitivity of this steels for sorbitic structure were improved both by increasing of Mo contents and small amount of V additions. On the other hand, for martensitic structure, it was found that notch-sensitivity could be improved by many other elements additions. Results obtained were as follows:
    (1) Increasing of C contentof this steel gave remarkable harm to notch-sensitivity than any other element. Therefore, it was recommended to decrease C content as low as possible.
    (2) Si and Cr, both increased notch-sensitivity as their content for sorbitic structure was increased, but the improving effects of impact value at 300°C tempered range were recognized.
    (3) Mo-free steel was remarkably notch-sensitive and therefore Mo addition was always necessary in this steel. Addition of 0.5% Mo were the most adequate to improve of notch-sensitivity but when its contents was increased to 1%, the sensitivity was a again increased.
    (4) W and Ti additions were not effective in sorbitic structure, but a little effective in low tempering-temperature range. Especially, Ti-B additions were effective in a low tempering-temperature range.
    (5) V addition was effective in both sorbitic and martensitic structure. In the former, the small amount of addition to 0.05% was effective, while in the later, 0.2% was adequate.
    (6) Cu addition was not effective under any conditions.
  • Stepped Annealing of High Speed Steels. (SKH8 and SKE6)

    pp. 1272-1275

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    Following the 18th. report (Tetsu-to-Hagane, Vol. 44, 1958, No. 11, p. 36), the rapid softening method by stepped annealing of high speed steels (SKH8 & SKH6) was studied by micrography and hardness test. The results obtained were summarized as follows:
    The hardness of the quenched high speed steel that had been annealed from 880°C→800°C in air, oil-or water-cooling (the so called "stepped annealing method") was nearly equal to the hardness obtained by a full annealing furnace.
  • The Effect of Nb on High Temperature Properties of Austenitic Steels.

    pp. 1276-1281

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    This report concerned the effect of Nb and C on mechanical properties such as creeprupture strength; tensile strength, impact value and deformation resistance at high temperature, aging hardness and microstructure of austenitic stainless steels.
    Specimens used in the experiments were 18 Cr-12 Ni austenitic stainless stees. The C content of the steels were of three kinds (0.03, 0.06, 0.12%).
    The Nb content were n times as much as C for each C content (in this case n=0, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15). In these steels, Nb C and Cr23C6 precipitated during aging at 600, 650, 700 and 750°C. Precipitates were concentrated by electrolyzing specimens in ethyl alcohol containing 10% of HCl, and examined by X-ray diffraction method. Cr23C6 precipitated mainey on grain boundary but it had no effect on aging hardness.
    Creep rupture strength increased with Nb content but it was almost invariable when Nb content exceeded about 11 times as much as C content. High-temperature tensile. strength was almost invariable with Nb content. There was no correlation between the effect of Nb on creep rupture strength and that on high-temperature tensile strength.
    High-temperature deformation-resistance depended only upon the amount of Nb dissolved in matrix.
    x

    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 第58回講演大会講演大要14 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.45(1959), No.9
    2. Formation Process of White Etching Area under Rolling Contact in Bearing Steel Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.89(2003), No.7
    3. 日本鉄鋼協会第57回講演大会講演大要13 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.45(1959), No.3
  • On the Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels

    pp. 1282-1298

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  • わが国の鉄鋼業に関する技術開発の方策

    pp. 1299-1304

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  • 抄録

    pp. 1305-1308,1304

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  • 鉄鋼ニューズ

    pp. 1309-1310

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  • 国内国外刊行誌参考記事目次

    pp. 1311-1313

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