Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 46 (1960), No. 11

  • 長期鉄鋼需要について

    pp. 1427-1428

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  • Effects of Molybdenum, Wolfram and Copper on Solubility of Graphite in Liquid Iron and the Method of Calculation for the Activity of Carbon in a Multicomponent Solution.

    pp. 1429-1437

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    Effects of molybdenum, wolfram and copper on solubility of graphite in liquid iron were studied at 1550°C. Interaction parameters at graphite saturation were given as follows:
    A general approximate equation for calculating the activity coefficient of carbon in a multicomponent solution was given as follows:
    Validity of the above equation was discussed by using the present data. Interaction parameters of an infinite dilute solution and the graphite saturated solution were compared with each other and discussed.
  • Effect of Titanium, Aluminum and Oxygen on the Solubility of Nitrogen in Liquid Iron

    pp. 1438-1441

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    The solubilities of nitrogen in liquid Fe-Ti, Fe-Al and Fe-O alloys were measured at 1600-1700°C by the same method as that in report I (Tetsu-to-Hagané, 46 (1960), p. 748).
    The results obtained were as follows:
    (1) The solubility of nitrogen in the liquid iron was increased with increase of titanium and oxygen contents.
    But the solubility was decreased with increase of aluminum content.
    (2) The effect of alloying elements on the activity coefficient of nitrogen in liquid iron was summarized as follows:
  • On Titanium Carbide

    pp. 1442-1446

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    The titanium carbide in titanium-containing steel was studied with an electron-microscope and by means of electron diffraction. The result was compared with the data of chemical analysis and the crystal grain size of the steel. There were found some close relations among them.
    Changes of particle size of precipitates in accordance with different heat-treating temperatures and contents of solutes in the steel were observed. In the steel A (C=0.085%, Ti= 0.22%) the particle size of the precipitate was about 100 Å at 900.. and 50mμ-μ at 1100... On the other hand, in the steel B (C=0.32%, Ti=0.46%), several microns particles were observed at various temperatures.
    The lattice constant of titanium carbide was decreased gradually from 4.33 Å to 4.27 Å, when the temperature rose from 900.. to 1300... It was considered that the composition of the carbide was changed with heat-treating temperatures.
    There were found a close relation between the crystal size of the steel and the quantity of precipitates. It was presumed that the quantity of precipitated carbide was a dominant factor for the crystal grain size in Fe-Ti-C system.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 製鋼・転炉 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.47(1961), No.3
    2. Continuous Annealing of Cold-Rolled Sheets Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.49(1963), No.1
    3. 日本鉄鋼協会第60回講演大会講演大要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.46(1960), No.10
  • Behavior of the Change of Carbides due to Heat-Treatment in the High-W High-Co High-Speed Steel

    pp. 1446-1450

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    In order to research the carbides reaction in high speed steel, the authors already reported some experimented results on low-W and high-W steel (Tetsu-to-Hagané, (1958), p. 1186, (1959), p. 608).
    In this report, a study was made on the chemical composition, the crystalline structure, and the particle size of carbides which had been electrolytically isolated from several heat-treated high-W high-Co high speed steels (X000).
    The following results were obtained:
    In the as-annealed the amount of carbides were 26%. Carbides which were consisted of three structures M6C, M23C6 and MC, were granulated. Main chemical composition of carbides were W (60%), Fe (20%), and, of course, Cr, Mo, Co etc. were also included.
    As for the concentration of elements into carbides, that of W was 98%, that of V was 81%, but that of Cr, though it was an easy element of making up carbides, was 60%. And a lot of Mn was dissolved in matrix.
    In the quenched state, the amount of insoluble carbides were about 45%, and the most portion of carbides were of M6C.
    In the tempered state, small size carbides were precipitated therein. Especially, the amount of precipitation was increased suddenly by tempering at 575...
    At the higher tempering temperature, X-ray diffraction lines were divided into doublets. This indicatted that there were precipitated two kind of M6C, Fe4W2C and Fe3W3C, the lattice constants of which lay near to each other. And by tempering at 750.., M23C6 was precipitated, too. The changes of the lattice constant α0 resembled to that in high W steel.
  • Effect of Small Amount of V, Ti and Zr Addition on Carbide Precipitation in Hadfield Steel Heated after Solution-Treatment

    pp. 1451-1458

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    Small amounts of V, Ti and Zr addition of Hadfield steels were studied by micrography and dilatometry on isothermal carbide precipitations. By addition of these elements Hadfield steels precipitated carbides quickly and also enlarged the precipitation-temperature ranges. These effects were especially remarkable by addition of Ti or Zr, but the lower side of carbide precipitation line of steels migrated to a higher temprature side by addition of both of these elements. Thus, carbide precipitations at a low temperature range of Ti- or Zr-added steels were decreased than standard steel.
    Acm temperature of steels were shifted to a higher temperature by addition of these elements, therefore solution-treatment temperatures of steels, added with these elements, required higher temperatures than the standard steel. Growth rates of pearlitic constituents in steels, added with Ti or Zr, were increased remarkably than that of the standard steel. When non-metallic inclusions were much present in steels, precipitation of pearlitic constituents in steels became quick, and it was presumed that increases of growth rates of pearlitic constituents by addition of Ti or Zr in steels were due to the presence of inclusions, especially nitrides in steels.
    Yield strength of steels after solution treatment were improved by addition of each of three elements, without lowering of toughness, but mechanical properties of steels heated after solution-treatment, added with each of three elements, were lowered in a wide temperature range than the standard steel, because carbide precipitations were accelerated by addition of each elements and precipitation temperature ranges were enlarged than that of the standard steel.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 製鋼・転炉 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.47(1961), No.3
    2. Continuous Annealing of Cold-Rolled Sheets Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.49(1963), No.1
    3. 日本鉄鋼協会第60回講演大会講演大要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.46(1960), No.10
  • Effect of P on Properties of 18Cr-12Ni-2Mo type Heat-Resisting Steel (Part I)

    pp. 1458-1465

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    Studies were made on the effect of phosphorus on properties of several heat-resisting steels containing 18% chromium, 12% nickel, 2% molybdenum, 0.8% columbium, 0.7% vanadium and 0.2% nitrogen.
    The results obtained were as follows:
    (1) The phosphorus addition increased the maximum hardness obtained by aging after solution treatment, and decreased the aging time necessary to attain to maximum hardness and accelerated overaging at a temperature higher than 750°C
    As a results of metallographic, electric resistivity and magnetic permeability studies, itwas considered that the phosphorus increased the strain energy of the austenite lattice which accelerated the precipitation of chromium carbide particles within austenite grains. and hence produced hardening.
    (2) The phosphorus greatly improved the rupture strength, but the rupture elongationand the impact value decreased with increasing phosphorus content.
    Small addition of boron improved the rupture life and ductility of the 18Cr-12Ni-2.5Mo steel containing 0.148% P. The stress-rupture values of this B-added steel at 650°C were equivalent to hot-cold-worked 19-9DL and Timken 16-25-6 alloys and those at 700°C were higher than hot-cold-worked 19-9DL alloy.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 製鋼・転炉 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.47(1961), No.3
    2. Continuous Annealing of Cold-Rolled Sheets Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.49(1963), No.1
    3. 日本鉄鋼協会第60回講演大会講演大要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.46(1960), No.10
  • On the Nitrogen Absorption of High Cr-Fe Alloys with Various Chromium Contents in Nitrogen

    pp. 1466-1474

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    Studies were made on the influence of the chromium content of high Cr-Fe alloys in the range from 15 to 25% of chromium on the nitrogen absorption at 1250°C in pure nitrogen. The results obtained were as follows:
    (1) When the chromium content was increased in high Cr-Fe alloys which had not been -added with both carbon and nitrogen, the nitrogen abrosption was promoted remarkably. While, the single austenite zone formed by the nitrogen absorption was not widened with increase of the chromium content.
    (2) High Cr-Fe alloys containing 0. 1% of carbon absorbed nitrogen more readily than those without carbon. The addition of 0. 1% of carbon formed a considerable amount of austenite in 15% Cr-Fe alloy before the nitrogen absorption, and the austenite accelerated The nitrogen absorption. The promoting effect of carbon on the nitrogen absorption was found to be more remarkable in this alloy than in alloys of higher chromium contents and with the same carbon content, in which almost all the structural constituents were consisted of ferrite.
    (3) Nitrogen pre-alloyed in high Cr-Fe alloys was found to retard the nitrogen absorplion though the austenite forming tendency of nitrogen was very similar to that of carbon. The effect of 0.1% of nitrogen in preventing the nitrogen absorption of high Cr-Fe alloys was not so marked in 15% Cr-Fe alloy as in alloys with higher chromium contents because of the formation of an appreciable amount of austenite in 15% Cr-Fe alloy by the prealloying of 0. 1% of nitrogen.
    (4) It was not always true that the higher the nitrogen content of high Cr-Fe alloys before the nitrogen absorption, the less the absorption rate. The nitrogen c3ntent of 25% Cr-Fe alloy containing 0.3% of nitrogen before the nitrogen absorption was found to have a high level of about 1. 0% in the single austenite zone by the nitrogen absorption at 1250°C for 4 hours. The strong absorption was presumably caused by the high chromium content and the fact that the pre-alloyed nitrogen was much enough to produce an appreci-able amount of austenite.
    (5) The single austenite zone of 15% Cr-Fe alloys consisted wholly of martensite when quenched in water immediately after the nitrogen absorption, while a considerable amount of austenite was retained in 20% Cr-Fe alloys. The austenite thus retained, however, was fully hardened by the subzero-treatment using liquid oxygen. In 25% Cr-Fe alloys martensite was no longer formed even by the subzero-treatment.
    (6) The retained austenite by the quenching in the single austenite zone which was formed by the nitrogen absorption was fairly stable against the heating at temperatures below about 600°C the nitrogen-containing austenite decomposed, however, rather readily by the tempering at above 600°C. in even 25% Cr-Fe alloy. The transformation from ferrite toaustenite on heating occurred at higher temperatures as the chromium content of alloys were raised, the change being found at about 1050°C in 25% Cr-Fe alloys.
  • Recent Electric Furnace Steelmaking

    pp. 1475-1490

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    x

    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 製鋼・転炉 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.47(1961), No.3
    2. Continuous Annealing of Cold-Rolled Sheets Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.49(1963), No.1
    3. 日本鉄鋼協会第60回講演大会講演大要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.46(1960), No.10
  • Corrosion of Iron & Steel Products and its Prevention in India

    pp. 1491-1494

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  • 座談会

    pp. 1495-1509

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  • 抄録

    pp. 1510-1514

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  • 鉄鋼ニューズ

    pp. 1515-1516

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  • 特許記事

    pp. 1519-1520,1490

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