Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 76 (1990), No. 12

  • Recent Development of Spring Steel in Japan

    pp. 2059-2064

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    The report discusses the recent development of spring steel in Japan during last 40 years. There has been a great increase in this steel production with the increase of production of automobiles. The technical trends of spring steel and springs are discussed in connection with hardenability, fatigue, high-stressed design and productivity. Especially, ways of improvement of performance of springs for suspention of automobiles were studied in respect to chemical composition, heat-treatment and manufacturing process.
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    1. Future Production of Blast Furnace Coke at Lower Temperature Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.77(1991), No.4
  • Speed Up of Steel Rolling and Forming

    pp. 2065-2078

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  • Future of Iron and Steel Refining Process on the Analogy of Thermodynamics

    pp. 2079-2088

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  • Chemical Processing of High Temperature Oxide Superconductors (I)

    pp. 2089-2096

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  • The Present and Future Trends in the Surface Treated Steel Sheet for Can Stock

    pp. 2097-2107

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  • Production of Ti-alloy Powder by Rotating Electrode Process

    pp. 2108-2115

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  • Partial Charging of Moisture Controlled Coal for Uniform Carbonization

    pp. 2116-2123

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    Recently the Coal Moisture Control (CMC) process, in which coal is dried to 5 6% moisture content, has been industrially applied to several works in Japan. In order to obtain uniform carbonization throughout the coke oven with low operation cost, a Partial Charging of Moisture Controlled Coal (PCMC) process has been proposed and investigated.
    The PCMC process is aimed for decrease of moisture content of charged coal and for increase of bulk density in the upper portion of coke oven by selective charging of moisture controlled coal.
    As a result of this study, the following results were obtained.
    (1) Through the test using full scale cold model oven, the flow pattern of coal from the charging car was confirmed to be funnel flow type. In order to charge moisture controlled coal in the upper portion of coke oven, it is necessary to charge moisture controlled coal in the lower portion of the charging car.
    ( 2 ) Through the test using actual coke oven, the PCMC process was confirmed to be effective for the uniform carbonization across the oven height.
  • Core Length of Submerged Gas Jet Injected into Water and Mercury

    pp. 2124-2130

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    The core length of submerged super-sonic gas jet was measured in water or mercury bath as the basis of injection metallurgy. Two different methods were developed to measure the core length on the jet axis. One method was the kinetic pressure profile measurement and the another was the intensity measurement of the light which was emitted from the nozzle. The core lengths determined by both methods agreed well and increased with increasing stagnant pressure. Under the same stagnant pressure the core length decreased with increasing Mach number of the nozzle. Therefore, the contribution of static component of pressure to the core was larger than that of kinetic component. The core length in water was twice as large as that in mercury. An empirical equation to predict the jet core length was proposed and was compared with those reported. High pressure injection and the use of the nozzle with low Mach number and small diameter wakes the core of submerged jet long.
  • Effect of Control Plate on the Knocking Phenomenon of Submerged Gas Jet

    pp. 2131-2136

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    The injection nozzle with control plate was developed in order to stabilize the upward submerged gas jet. The gas hold-up of bath and the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for gas-liquid reaction were enhanced when the control plate was placed near the nozzle, because the injected jet was dispersed into small bubbles at the plate. The knocking frequency of jet decreased as the plate was approached toward the nozzle and became to zero at the critical distance from the nozzle ( Lcrit). Lcrit. increased with increasing stagnant pressure of jet and slightly decreased with increasing nozzle Mach number. A good relationship was obtained between jet core length and Lcrit. The effect of control plate on the jet stability was observed in mercury bath as well as in water bath.
    x

    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Calculation of Liquidus and Solidus Surfaces of Iron-rich Corner of Fe-Cr-Ni System Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.76(1990), No.12
  • Calculation of Liquidus and Solidus Surfaces of Iron-rich Corner of Fe-Cr-Ni System

    pp. 2137-2143

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    The liquidus and solidus surfaces of iron-rich corner of Fe-Cr-Ni system was calculated.
    The purpose of this calculation was to reproduce sufficiently accurate informations concerning solidification process, such as liquidus and solidus temperatures, tie-lines, peritectic-eutectic line.
    The Gibbs energy of the system was expressed by use of the extended regular solution model, and the necessary thermodynamical parameters were evaluated by the least square method, to fit experimental phase diagrams and published thermodynamic values.
    Evaluation for binary system concerning of ternary system was conducted with great attention, because binary parameters play critical role on the tie-lines of ternary system. Precise fitting on the limited area was made to avoid the number of parameters having low physical meaning to increase.
    The calculated liquidus and solidus surfaces showed a good agreement with experimental ones, concerning to the purpose cited above. The validity of this phase diagram was confirmed by applicating the same method to other published phase diagram.
    x

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    1. Effect of Control Plate on the Knocking Phenomenon of Submerged Gas Jet Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.76(1990), No.12
  • Surface Tensions and Densities of Molten Al2O3 and Ti2O3

    pp. 2144-2151

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    Surface tensions and densities of molten Al2O3 and Ti2O3 were determined under Ar + 10% H2 gas by using the maximum bubble pressure method. Surface tension and density of molten Al2O3 near the melting point are 606 ± 6 mN/m and 3.06 ± 0.03 × 103 kg/m3, and those of molten Ti2O3 are 584 ± 5 mN/m and 3.91 ± 0.03 × 103 kg/m3, respectively. The results are compared with those of other moltem pure oxides having high melting points and discussed.
  • Thermal Stress Analysis of a High Carbon Low Alloy Cast Steel Ingot by the Use of a Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations

    pp. 2152-2158

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    Apllicability of the temperature and strain rate-dependent constitutive equations proposed by L. ANAND, which is based on an internal-variable theory, is examined for a high carbon low alloy cast steel.
    It is shown that with relatively less number of compression test data these equations can well predict the stress-strain relations of the material at elevated temperatures in excess of a homologous temperature of 0.5.
    Formulation by the finite element method is done based on these constitutive equations to calculate thermal stress state during solidification and subsequent cooling period of an ingot of the above steel, which shows that the method described in this paper is useful for analyzing thermally-induced high temperature problems of castings. The method also offers a simplified, straightforward algorithm of FEM compared with the classical treatment where the stress-strain relationship is modelled by the combinations of time-independent elastoplasticity and of elastoplasticity and creep.
  • Prediction of Deformation Behavior of Steel Sheets Based on Crystallographic Texture

    pp. 2159-2166

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    Stress-strain curves under various multiaxial stress states and yield loci of steel sheets were calculated using measured texture data and a crystallographical theory. A textured polycrystalline sheet is simplified to be an aggregate of many single crystals with various orientations. A Crystallite Orientation Distribution Function (CODF) which was calculated from measured texture data was used as a volume fraction of a certain oriented crystal. Considering restricted glide on slip systems as a deformation mode of a single crystal, a strain tensor in each crystal subjected to various multiaxial stress states was calculated. In order to calculate a strain tensor for a textured polycrystalline sheet, the calculated strain for each single crystal was weighted by the CODF and averaged over all orientations. The calculated results are compared with experimental ones for two low carbon steel sheets. The behavior of strain-hardening and a planar anisotropy of the calculated stress-strain relation are in good agreement with the experiment. The calculated yield locus can also represent a general shape of the measured one.
  • Application of Membrane-type Electroplating Process to Iron Plating from a Concentrated Chloride Bath

    pp. 2167-2174

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    Application of membrane method to high speed iron electroplating from concentrated aqueous FeCl2 baths of 105 210 g/l Fe2+ at temperatures between 25100°C with cathode current densities up to 100 A/dm2 was examined. The same electrolyte as catholyte and HCl solutions of different concentrations were used as anolyte.
    When FeCl2 solutions with pH 1.111.73 were used as anolyte, emission of Cl2 gas from Pt anode was completely suppressed in contrast to HCl anolytes. Also with FeCl2anolyte, the catholyte pH and iron deposition efficiency were kept almost constant during electrolysis. Thus, FeCl2 solutions are preferable as anolyte. The potential drop within the fluorinated membrane became larger with the increase of FeCl2 concentration and the electrolyte temperature. It also increased with the decrease in the water content of the membrane.
    However, the potential drop was only about 2 V (14% of the total cell voltage), when plating was conducted in the 158 g/l Fe2+ bath at 100°C with 100 A/dm2. Therefore, it can be concluded that the membrane method using FeCl2 solutions as anolyte is beneficial to iron plating at high current densities.
  • Correlation between Bond Order Based on Electron Theory and Active Corrosion Rate for Ti-based Alloys Attacked in HCl Solution

    pp. 2175-2181

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    In order to understand alloying effects on the corrosion resistance of titanium, polarization curves were measured at 343 K in 10 mass% HCl solution with various Ti-M binary alloys (M= Al, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Fe, V, Cr, Mo, Co and Ni). The results were interpreted using an alloying parameter obtained by a molecular orbital calculation. The parameter is the bond order (Bo) which is a measure of the strength of the covalent bonds between titanium and alloying elements. It was found that alloys containing the elements with higher Bo values showed a lower critical anodic current density in the polarization curve and hence higher corrosion resistance. It is likely that the Bo is a convenient parameter for describing the corrosion rate of titanium alloys in a acid environment such as a hydrochloric acid.
  • Effect of Microstructure on the Fatigue Behavior of Blended Elemental P/M Ti-6Al-4V Compacts

    pp. 2182-2189

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    Several different microstructural conditions were generated through combinations of processing and heat treatment to find out the optimum microstructure and also to investigate the effect of the alpha phase mor phology on the high cycle fatigue strength. The best combination of high cycle fatigue strength and ductility was obtained by the new Blended Elemental (BE) method, in which sintered material was waterquenched from the beta phase region prior to HlP'ing. The highest fatigue strength at 107 cycles, 72 kgf/mm2, was obtained by the STA treatment. Examination of the fatigue crack initiation facets and the underlying microstructures by the presicion sectioning method revealed that the fatigue failure initiated from the shear-across-colony facet for conventional BE material and from the shear-across-primary alpha facet for acicular microstructure. These shear facets were inclined at 45° to the tensile axis, which coincide with the maximum shear direction. In the case of the acicular microstructure, the slip direction was oriented almost parallel to the short axis of the elongated primary alpha grain and hence it seemed that there is no dependence of the high cycle fatigue strength on the aspect ratio of the alpha grain, but rather on the width of alpha grain. Based on these initiation analysis, it is concluded that, irrespective of microstructural categories, the high cycle fatigue strength can be described definitively as a function of the length of slip path in the alpha grain, with a colony considered as a single grain.
  • Effects of Silicon and Molybdenum on Long-term Heating Embrittlement and Precipitation of Laves Phase of High Chromium Ferritic Heat Resistant Steels

    pp. 2190-2197

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    Long-term heating embrittlement of high-chromium ferritic heat resistant steels was investigated. In this work, long-term heating of 9 wt %Cr ferritic steels with various amounts of molybdenum and silicon up to 10 000 h at 450700°C was conducted, and then toughness and microstructure were investigated. The results are summarized as follows.
    (1) Heating embrittlement was significantly caused by heating at 550650°C because of precipitation of the Laves phase mainly on the δ-ferrite/martensite boundaries and in δ-ferrite grains.
    (2) Decrease in the amount of silicon was effective in improving the embrittlement due to the decrease in the amount of precipitation of the Laves phase. Low-molybdenum steels with 0.7 wt%Mo was not caused the embrittlement because the Laves phase did not precipitate.
    (3) Relationship between molybdenum in solute, temperature and silicon content was given as folows ;
    log(Mo)sol.= - 1270/T+ 1.51-0.67 ·Si(wt%).
    Where, T= 823973 K and Si= 0.03 and 0.17 wt%.
  • Effects of Carbon, Silicon and Manganese on Optical Emission Spectrochemical Analysis for Sulfur in Steel

    pp. 2198-2205

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    Interference effects of carbon, silicon and manganese on optical emission spectrochemical analysis for sulfur in steel were investigated using binaly (Fe-S) and ternary (Fe-S-X) samples.
    Multiplicative interference was observed between S and C, and S and Si. The effect of Mn on S determination is due to combination of neighbouring line and multiplicative interference.
    Multiplicative interference is diminished by the improvement of the source condition, extending pre-burn time, or using high energy pre-burn, or using special combined spark and dividing measurement, and to apply the Pulse Distribution Analysis (PDA) method.
    The accuracy of determination for S is improved using dj·ljcorrection method.
  • 学会の会費と会員数/科学の論理と工学の論理

    pp. 2210-2210,2225

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