Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 70 (1984), No. 11

  • The Course the Experimental Blast Furnace in the University of Tokyo Has Followed

    pp. 1501-1510

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  • Refining Technology for High Purity Stainless Steels and Some Properties of Products

    pp. 1511-1522

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    1. Development History of Combined Blowing Converter Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.76(1990), No.11
    2. Development of Oxygen Top Blowing and Argon Bottom Blowing Method in Refining of Stainless Steel Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.72(1986), No.9
    3. Fundamentals of the Kinetics in Liquid Metals Refining Processes Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.77(1991), No.12
  • Application of Rare Earths

    pp. 1523-1529

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  • Carbon Contaminants on the Surface of Cold Rolled Steel Sheet

    pp. 1530-1540

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  • High Temperature Oxidation of Ferritic Stainless Steels

    pp. 1541-1550

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  • Present State of Research on the Bauschinger Effect

    pp. 1551-1558

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  • The Compositional and Structural Changes in Chromite during Reduction with Carbon

    pp. 1559-1566

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    Russian chromite particles reduced to various stages of reduction with graphite were subjected to the analyses by an X-ray diffractometer and an electronprobe microanalyser.
    At 1 100°C, the chromite was reduced only to a slight extent. At the temperatures between 1 150° and 1 250°C, metallic beads were formed on the surface of a chromite grain. Their Cr content was relatively low. The grain was divided into the core of almost unreduced chromite and the outer layer depleted in Fe and rich in Al and Mg.
    At 1 300°C or above, metallic beads with a higher content of Cr were formed around the grain. In the later stage of reduction, the grain was divided into three zones, i.e., the outer layer mainly consisted of MgAl2O4, the inner layer depleted in Fe only, and the core of almost unreduced chromite. Metallic beads were formed in the outer layer and the inner layer separately and a darker doughnut-like zone was observed between them in a coarser grain (above 100μm). A considerably large content of MgO was observed in this zone. Metallic phase formed in the inner layer was vein-like and rich in Fe.
    At 1 250°C or above, the transfer of Si from gangue into chromite grains was observed, which was considered to be the main reason of the acceleration of the reduction rate of chromite ore with SiO2.
  • Mathematical Modeling of Sintering Process Considering Influence of Changes in Void Fraction and Apparent Particle Size in the Bed on Pressure Drop

    pp. 1567-1574

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    A laboratory-scale sintering simulator was developed for the purpose of measuring changes in process variables of the sinter bed in the course of sintering. The changes in pressure drop, bed-temperature and composition of outlet gas were measured by the simulator for mini-pellets which were modeled for actual sinter mix. A numerical analysis was carried out on the pressure drop, through estimating increases in void fraction and particle size by considering disappearance of coke due to combustion and coalescence of particles and formation of macro-pores due to melt-formation.
    Resultant equations for the changes in void fraction and particle size obtained were applied to a mathematical model of sintering process developed. Good agreement was obtained between computed results and measured data by using a sinter-pot.
  • Distribution of Solute Elements between Solid and Liquid Phases in Iron-Carbon Base Ternary Alloys

    pp. 1575-1582

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    The equilibrium distribution coefficients ko. for some solutes in Fe-C-base ternary alloys have been ex perimentally investigated. The mechanisms of these solute distributions between solid and liquid phases have also been discussed on the basis of thermodynamics.
    The experimental results show that ko of Ni increases and ko of V decreases with increasing carbon content, and the distributions of C in Fe-C-Ni and Fe-C-V alloys differ little from those in Fe-C binary alloys. The effect of carbon on kos of Ni and V can be thermodynamically explained by using the interaction parameter, the activity coefficient and so on.
  • Effects of Solute-interaction on the Equilibrium Distributions of Solute Elements between Solid and Liquid Phases in Iron Base Ternary System

    pp. 1583-1589

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    In order to describe the effects of solute-interactions on the equilibrium distributions of solute elements between solid and liquid phases in iron base ternary system, Distribution Interaction Coefficient (DIC), kjiwas defined in this work. The coefficient kjiis shown as the ratio of the equilibrium distribution coefficient of solute i in Fe-i-j ternary system to that in Fe-i binary one and this is considered to be the parameter indicating the change of the equilibrium distribution coefficient of solute i with the addition of the alloying element j. The influences of solute-interaction on the equilibrium distributions of some solutes in Fe-C, Fe-N, Fe-H, Fe-P and Fe-S base ternary systems could be discussed by the use of the coefficient DIC.
  • Characteristics of Circulating Liquid in Bottom-blown Refining Vessel

    pp. 1590-1597

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    The recirculating flow rate of liquid in a ladle is one of the dominating factors for the mass transfer in bottom-blown refining vessel.
    A mathematical model for predicting the recirculating flow rate of liquid in bottom-blown ladle is developed on the basis of the mass and momentum balances. In order to evaluate the recirculating flow rate, the recirculating time of a tracer particle was measured in the water model experiments. The recirculating flow rate obtained in the water model experiments is well predicted by the mathematical model.
    On the basis of the mathematical model and the experiments, the following results regarding the recirculating flow rate were observed: (1) it increases with increase of liquid depth under the same amount of mixing power density, (2) it decreases with increase of vessel size of geometrical similarity, (3) it decreases when gas is injected at eccentric position, (4) the product of the mixing time and the recirculating flow rate in given vessels is nearly constant over the wide range of mixing power density.
  • Hardenability Control of Case Hardening Steels

    pp. 1598-1604

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    As the increase of switchover from carburizing to induction hardening, hardenability control of shallow hardening steels for induction hardening has become to be important. This paper introduces newly developed control techniques for such steels comparing with conventional methods.
    As for alloy steels, Jominy (end quenched) hardness at a particular distance has been required to be controlled within a small range in order to maintain the strength and to minimize the quench-distortion. The control methods for such a requirement is noted to have reached to a considerably high level. On the contrary, hardening depth is required to be controlled in the case of induction hardening. Therefore, the authors have established new technical methods for controlling Jominy distance specified at a particular hardness level. Basically two developments are included in this control system. The one is a computerized prediction of whole Jominy curves from chemical compositions of molten steel and the other is a new steelmaking process consisted of EF (Electric Arc Furnace Melting)+LF (Ladle Furnace Refining)+RH (RH Vacuum Degassing)+CC (Continuous Casting).
  • Behavior of Ferricfluoride Ions in the Pickling Solution of Nitric Acid and Hydrofluoric Acid for Stainless Steels

    pp. 1605-1611

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    The conditions of formation of FeF2+, FeF2+ and FeF3 in the pickling solution of HNO3 and HF for stain less steels have been studied.
    The types of ferricfluoride ions depend on the ratio of concentrations (g/l) of total fluoric ion to that of ion in the pickling solution. When this ratio exceeds 1.5, FeF2+ion is formed and FeF2+ ion is formed when the ratio is less than 1.5. Precipitates in the pickling solution are FeF3·3H2O and scales formed during annealing of stainless steels. The amounts of precipitates FeF3·3H2O increases with the concentrations of total fluoric ions and ferric ion. When the concentration of ferric ion is less than 15 g/l, precipitate of FeF3·3H2O is not formed.
    For the determination of uncomplexed HF in the pickling solution, volumetric titration method with standard H3BO3 solution is employed.
  • Development of an Automated Analyzer for Nitric Acid, Hydrofluoric Acid and Ferric Ion in the Pickling Solution of Stainless Steels

    pp. 1612-1619

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    A new analyzer has been developed for automatic sampling and analyzing the acid and ferric ion of the pickling solution of stainless steels.
    HNO3 and uncomplexed HF concentrations are determined with the ion selective electrodes after separating metallic ions from solution with the diffusion dialysis utilizing an anion exchange membrane. Fe3+ concentration is determined by the spectrophotometric method after decomposing ferricfluoride ions by Al(NO3)3 solution.
    The influence of ions in the pickling solution on the dialysis coefficients of HNO3and HF through the anion exchange membrane is investigated. The apparent effect of higher concentration level of HNO3 is corrected by using a calibration curve made by running the standard solution which has the similar concentration to that of the sample solution.
    The correcting method of the coexisting ferric ions for the determination of hydrofluoric acid is developed.
    The analytical accuracy (d)obtained by the new analyzer is 2.7 g/l, 0.4 g/l and -2.1 g/l for HNO3 (31-55 g/l), HF (13.1-37.6 g/l) and Fe3+ (11.3-35.3 g/l) respectively.
  • コークス製造研究への提言

    pp. 1620-1621

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  • 抄録

    pp. 1623-1625

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