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Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 52 (1966), No. 8

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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575
Publisher: The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan


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Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 52 (1966), No. 8

Hot Rolling Texture of Low Carbon Steel


pp. 1171-1179


Textures of hot rolled strips of low carbon steel were determined. Samples were taken at the entrance and exit of the hot finishing train and between each stand of it.
The principal preferred orientation was {100}[011].{110}‹010› was also found, which weakened with decreasing thickness.
Obtained {200} pole figures can be accounted for by assuming (1) that the rolling texture of γ-phase was composed of two preferred orientations of {110}‹112› and {112}‹111›(2) that the compressive stress a normal to the rolling plane and the tensile stress -a parallel to the rolling direction are operative in rolling and (3) that the austenite transforms to the ferrite by a Kurdjumow-Sachs relationship where the austenite slip plane and slip direction which have large resolved shear stress are parallel to (110)α and [111]α, respectively.


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Hot Rolling Texture of Low Carbon Steel

Texture of Hot-Rolled Band of Silicon Iron


pp. 1179-1188


It was reported that the texture of the hot-rolled band ot mild steel closely resembled the coldrolling texture. On the other hand, a strong {112}‹110› component was reported to be found in the hot-rolling texture of silicon iron recently. This investigation concerns with explanations of the gaps between above both results. The silicon iron bands 2.5 mm thick were prepared by rolling to reductions of 40 and 60 pct at 700°, 800°, 900°, and 1000°. X-ray examinations were made at (a) the surface and (b) the middle part of thickness to determine the textures.(110) pole figures were constructed by Schulz's reflection method.
(a) Surface: The texture was a broad (110)[001].
(b) Middle part of thickness: The texture was a cold-rolling type when rolling temperature was low, while a sharp {112}‹110› component was obtained when rolling temperature was high. The transition point between these two types of texture was 900°. As the results, the difference of the texture was proved to depend on the variations of rolling conditions.
Two kinds of the hot-rolled band of titanium-bearing silicon iron which had both type of textures were cold-rolled and finished to grain-oriented electrical sheets. And (110)[001] secondary recrystallization texture was given in the strips irrespective of the textures of hot-rolled bands. This shows that the development of the (110)[001] secondary recrystallization texture is independent of hot-rolling texture as far as the sheets are rolled under the above rolling condition.

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Texture of Hot-Rolled Band of Silicon Iron

Effect of Crystallographic Texture on Presss Froming of Extra-Low Carbon Rimmed Steel Sheet


pp. 1188-1201


Effects of crystallographic texture on the plastic deformation of solid state decarburized rimmed steel sheets have been studied. Three typical textures composed of a main preferred orientation, (111)[110], (110)[001] and (100)±10° to the rolling plane, [011]±25° to the rolling direction, were obtained from the same mother hot coil. Tensile tests, cupping tests and Erichsen tests were carried out in the dead soft condition and effects of crystallographic texture on the press formability were investigated with specimens of the same chemical composition, the same second phase particles and almost the same grain size. Moreover, effects of interaction between crystallographic texture and mechanical fiber on the elongation and effects of interactions between texture, mechanical fiber, grain size and the dimensinal effect of testing tool on the stretchability were examined.
The results obtained are summarized as follows:
1) The plastic anisotropy ratio “r” can be related to crystallographic texture and the deepdrawability is predominatly influenced by the preferred orientation and the sharpness of texture.
2) Texture is a basic factor for the earing behaviour in deep-drawing test, but a more thoroughgoing study is necessary to get a clearer picture on the interrelation between the plane anisotropy of “r” and the earing.
3) Young's modulus and poisson's ratio are considerably influenced by texture, and the results of testing agree with the estimates made by theoretical calculations.
4) Plane anisotropies of yield strength, tensile strength and strain hardening exponet are slightly influenced by texture, whereas plane anisotropy of elongation is remarkably influenced. The fact can be interpreted by considering the influence of “r” on the dimensional effect of local elongation and the interaction between “r” and mechanical fiber on uniform elongation.
5) As a result of stretching cup test, it was made clear that strain distribution is influenced by plastic anisotropy.
6) Stretchability is also remarkably influenced by texture. In this regard, interactions among the dimensional effect of testing tool, grain size and mechanical fiber shold always be taken tnto cosideration as important factors.


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Effect of Crystallographic Texture on Presss Froming of Extra-Low Carbon Rimmed Steel Sheet

The Effect of Carbon on the Properties of 25Cr-20Ni Heat Resisting Steel

Takashi TSUCHIYA, Yosuke MATSUMOTO, Shigehiro INOUE

pp. 1202-1215


The effect of carbon on the mechanical properties at room and high-temperature of 25Cr-20Ni steels was investigated for sand mould ordinarily cast, metal mould centrifugally cast and forged specimens. For the ordinarily cast specimens heating-cooling repeat tests and oxidation tests were also carried out to investigate the influence of carbon on thermal fatigue strength and oxidation resistance.
The results obtained were as follows:
1) Ferrite and sigma phases were appreciated in the as-cast microstructure of the ordinarily cast specimen with 0.05% of carbon. The carbides observed in another as-cast specimens were identified as M23C6 and M7C3 by X-ray diffractions of electrolytically extracted residues, of which M7C3 increased with increasing carbon content and none of M7C3 was identified above 0.75% of carbon. It was reduced that M23C6 was stable in 25Cr-20Ni cast steel, because of the transformation of M7C3 to M23C6 at high-temperature.
2) At room-temperature, as the carbon content of both cast and forged specimens increased, hardness and yield strength increased and ductility adversely decreased. In ordinarily cast specimens tensile strength was maximum at 0.27% of carbon and above 0.47% of carbon the strength remained nearly constant as well as that in centrifugally cast specimens. The tensile strength offorged specimens increasing with increasing carbon content. Generally forged specimens showed the most excellent properties at room temperature.
3) At 871° and 982°C tensile strength increased with increasing carbon content in all. On the whole the tensile properties of centrifugally cast specimens were better than those of ordinarily cast at high temperature, but such excellence of forged specimens in the properties as appreciated at room temperature had not been already observed at 871°C.
4) The stress rupture strength of ordinarily cast specimens was effectively improved with increasing carbon content from 0.05 to 0.95% up to about 3000hr at 871°C and about 1000hr at982°C, over which the strength decreased more or less above 0.75% of carbon because of the coarsening of secondary carbides and the agglomeration of primary carbides. In the forged specimens such carbon effect on the strength was not appreciated. The strength of centrifugally cast specimens was more excellent than that of ordinarily cast, and forged specimens showed the extremely inferior strength compared with cast specimens.
5) It was deduced that the thermal fatigue strength of 25Cr-20Ni cast steel was improved by addition of carbon to about 0.5%.
6) The increasing of carbon to a proper content in order to improve high-temperature strength would not bring about the decrease of oxidation resistance in 25Cr-20Ni cast steel.


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The Effect of Carbon on the Properties of 25Cr-20Ni Heat Resisting Steel


佐野 信雄, 塩見 純雄, 松下 幸雄

pp. 1234-1239


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檜垣 達

pp. 1240-1245


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