Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 44 (1958), No. 5

  • ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS AND CHEMICAL POTENTIALS OF SOLUTE ELEMENTS IN MOLTEN IRON

    pp. 533-541

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    The lattice model of liquids was applied to molten iron containing some kinds of foreign elements. The theoretical expressions for chemical potentials and activity coefficients were derived, making use of an approximational method analogous to that of Bragg-Williams for the case of binary alloys.
    The results are as follows;
    1) If three absolute elements (1, 2and 3) are all interstitials, the activity coefficient f that denotes the extent of deviation from Herry's law which is valid for dilute solutions is given by for the first solute element, where ci is the concentration of the i'th element, φij the interaction potential between the i'th and j'th solute elements. The validity of this expression is examined by using the numerical data for Fe-O-C system.
    2) If three elements (B, C and D) are all substitutional in the solvent (A), the activity coefficient γ that denotes the extent of deviation from Raoult's law for the ideal solution is given by for any one (say D) of the four elements, where ni is the molar fraction of the i's element, ΩAB, for example, the enthalpy change in the reaction A+B=AB. The validity of this expression is examined by the data for Fe-Si-Cu system.
    3) If elements A1 and A2 are substitutional and elements B1 and B2 interstitial, the chemical potential of B2 is given by and that of substitutional A2 by where in the two-letter suffix to φ' the first letter denotes the kind of substitutional element and the second the kind of interstitial element. Further, FA2 denotes molar free energy of pure A2, and φ' the interaction potential between A and B, and φ" that between substitutional elements. The validity bf this expression is examined by using the data for Fe-Si-C system.
  • STUDIES ON THE DESULPHURIZATION OF MOLTEN PIG IRON BY MANGANESE (II)

    pp. 541-546

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    Refer to Report I p. 461, April, 1958 of this Journal.
  • STUDY ON SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS OF INGOTS (II)

    pp. 546-552

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    The authors made investigations into the state of molten steel near the solid phase of a ingot of 9-20 tons with a sampler which had been described in report No. 1. (p. 467-470, April, 1958 of this issue.)
    The results obtained were as follows:
    1. Carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, sulphur, hydrogen and nitrogen concentrated into liquid phase along with the progress of solidification.
    The quantity of it, (in case it was indicated based on the value at a tundish immediately before casting), was as follows: 1.40 times for carbon, 1.10 times for silicon and manganese, 1.50 times for phosphorus and sulphur above 2.00 times for hydrogen and nitrogen
    2. In the process of solidification, the total quantity of oxygen in molten steel near the solid-liquid border line showed inclination to decrease with the progress of the solidification.
    However, it increased a little when the progress of solidification reached as far as near the sinkhead.
    Both Al2O3 and MnO were observed to have almost the same tendency as total oxygen and SiO2 was noticed to have an inclination of a little more concentrating into the liquid phase with the progress of solidification. Content of FeO was almost negligible, being shown no clear variations and generally, the variations of oxygen and oxides were not outstanding.
    In general, there existed some relations between the concentration of these elements in the liquid phase during solidification and defects in ingots.
  • STUDY ON THE HOT-DUCTILITY OF STEELS (I)

    pp. 552-559

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    As a method to evaluate hot-ductility of steels, hot twist test was adopted and study on its test was performed.
    The design and construction of the testing apparatus, procedure of test and the form of test specimens were described.
    Some tests were carried out to confirm the reproducibility, accuracy of test results and availability of this test.
    In these tests, the following results were obtained.
    (1) The apparatus used showed fairly good reproducibility and accuracy of test results.
    (2) This test was proved to be more useful and sensitive to evaluating hot-ductility of steels as compared with other tests such as high temperature tensile or impact test.
    Also in this study, the effect of MnS inclusions on hot-ductility of steels was examined.
    In addition, by means of this test, some experiments were performed on the hot-ductility of various carbon and alloy steels.
  • STUDIES ON DUPLEX GRAIN STRUCTURES OF AUSTENITE (II)

    pp. 559-564

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    Already described in the previous report of the same title. (Refer to the Part-1. p. 476, April, 1958 issue of "Tetsu-to-Hagane".)
  • STUDY ON CARBIDES IN COMMERCIAL SPECIAL STEELS BY ELECTROLYTIC ISOLATION (V)

    pp. 565-570

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    The nature of the carbides in several cold-working die steels were studied by the electrolytic isolation, subsequent chemical analysis and X-ray examination, and the following results were obtained:
    (1) The carbides in annealed high-C high-Cr die steel are M7C3, as reported in the previous paper. (Tetsu-to-Hagané, Vol. 42 (1956) p. 1118) While, the carbides in the steels, modified by the addition of W (3%) or Mo (1%), are principally M23C6. The high-C high-W die steel contains very large amounts of M23C6, accompanied some M6C.
    (2) The most of Cr, W and Mo in the annealed steels are tied up in the carbides.
    After usual quenching treatment of these steels, the considerable carbides are undissolved in austenite, so that at such a quenching temperature, C, Cr, W and Mo contents of the austenite are less than those of the steel as a whole.
    (3) In the course of tempering of these steels, ε anld θ carbides precipitated in martensite change to another special carbides, depending on the time and temperature of tempering. That is, in the high-C high-Cr-W steel, carbide reactions proceed as ε→θ→M7C3→M23C6, and in the high-C high-W steel, as ε→θ→M6C→M23C6.
    x

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  • MORG ÅRDSHAMMARS SYSTEM ROLLING TRAIN -A REVIEW-

    pp. 571-582

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  • PERMANENT MAGNETS IN RECENT YEARS -A Review-

    pp. 583-596

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  • On the Atomie Power Generation (II) -Speeial Lecture-

    pp. 597-604

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  • 鉄鋼技術共同研究会

    pp. 605-610

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    x

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    1. 鉄鋼ニユーズ Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.44(1958), No.1
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  • 抄録

    pp. 611-616

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  • 鉄鋼ニューズ

    pp. 617-622

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  • 国内国外刊行誌参考記事目次

    pp. 618-622

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