Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 71 (1985), No. 10

  • Rare Earth Permanent Magnet

    pp. 1269-1275

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  • Recent Activity of the Quality Control Committee of the Joint Research Society of ISIJ

    pp. 1276-1285

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  • Iron Ore Preparation and Blast Furnace Practice in Japan

    pp. 1286-1299

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  • Swelling of Wustite Pellets during the Reduction with CO-CO2 Mixtures Containing Small Amounts of Sulphur

    pp. 1311-1318

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    Swelling of wustite pellets during the reduction with CO-CO2 mixtures containing COS at low partial pressure was investigated in the temperature range from 800 to 1 000°C.
    When the ratio PCOS/PCO in reducing gas was lower in 10-2 than the equilibrium ratio between iron and iron sulphide, the abnormal swelling of pellets was observed as accompanied with the formation of fibrous iron. This range of the gas ratio was seemed to be independent of the presence of CaO and K2O in wustite.
    CaO and K2O dissolved in wustite did not directly induce the abnormal swelling, but the gaseous sulphur enhanced the abnormal swelling more greatly due to the coexistence of oxide additive in wustite.
    Two reasons for the favorable formation of fibrous iron induced by the gaseous sulphur were based on the sulphur adsorption on the solids. One is that sulphur diminishes the number of sites for the iron nucleation due to its adsorption at defects on wustite surface. The other is that sulphur induces upward growth of iron, inhibiting lateral growth of iron due to its adsorption on active iron surface.
  • Some Practical Technology for Implementation of Solidification Simulation as Applied to Sand Mold Castings

    pp. 1319-1326

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    Although it has become clear that a computer simulation is an efficient method to predict a generation of defects in castings, there has not been sufficiently economical hardware and software which can be applied to 3-dimensional model in a practical sense.
    In order to cope with this difficulty, we have developed solidification simulation systems; a large computer system and a personal computer system.
    The large computer system can deal with 2- and 3-dimensional models and it only takes about half an hour to one hour to input the data for a 3-dimensional model by special data processing.
    The personal computer system is applicable to 2-dimensional models.
    It has a pre-processor enabling easy data input and a post-processor with which one can evaluate the results by color graphics.
    In this paper, some details of these systems and results of their applications are described.
  • Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Sintered Composite Stainless Steel by Means of Rolling

    pp. 1327-1334

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    An experimental study has been conducted to improve the mechanical properties of sintered stainless steels of SUS304L and SUS430L powders by means of such treatments as cold-rolling-and-annealing or hot rolling. The results obtained are as follows.
    (1) Through 60% coldrrolling and 2-hour annealing at 1 200°C, the relative density of both sintered steels has reached about 96%, and their tensile strength and elongation have closely approached the usual values of the corresponding cast steels.
    (2) In the sintered steels from mixed powder, the martensite produced in the interface between SUS304L and SUS430L has a great effect on the mechanical properties. The martensite is most produced in the sinter of the 50% volume fraction of SUS304L, thus the tensile strength is the highest and the elongation is the lowest. In the tensile test above 700°C, the effect of martensite disappears.
    (3) A treatment of 60% hot rolling at 1 100°C improves tensile strength and elongation compared with the above cold-rolling-and-annealing treatment.
  • A Prediction Algorithm of Temperature in Slab in Reheating Furnace by Use of Analytical Solution

    pp. 1335-1342

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    An analytical solution of one dimensional heat conduction equation is derived under the following conditions.
    (1) Constant heating energy E' is applied at the top surface of the slabs.
    (2) There is no flow of heat at the bottom surface.
    (3) The initial temperature distribution is approximately equal to the quadratic function determined by the both surface temperature.
    Further, a practical and fast algorithm is proposed for the prediction calculation of heating temperature. The algorithm uses the analytical solution. First, the slab temperature is predicted by the analytical solution. Every time the calculated temperature goes beyond the predicted temperature range, the calculation is interrupted. The thermal constants used are corrected to become appropriate to the next range of temperature and to rest the initial distribution of temperature and energy E' decided by radiant heating energy calculation, and then the prediction calculation is started again. The proposed algorithm has a great advantage in reduction of computation time over the difference equation method. As the proposed algorithm takes into account the nonlinearity of thermal constants, the computation accuracy is expected to be nearly equal to that of the difference equation method.
  • Effects of Composition of Phosphate Solution on Wet Adhesion of Zn-Ni Alloy Electroplated Steel Sheet

    pp. 1343-1350

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    Effects of composition of phosphate solution on wet adhesion have been investigated.
    The lower Zn_??_and the higher Ni_??_concentration in phosphate solution increase the wet adhesion of both Zn-Ni alloy and Zn electroplated steel sheets, and also decrease the effect of cathodic electrodeposition (C-ED) baking temperature on wet adhesion. X-ray diffraction images of phosphate film formed on samples show Hopeite invariably, even if compositions of phosphate solution change, but Ni content in phosphate film is different.
    The higher Ni_??_concentration in phosphate solution becomes, the richer Ni content in phosphate film and at the same time, the more eminent wet adhesion becomes. In the case of Zn-Ni alloy electroplated steel sheet, partial Ni contained in phosphate film is supplied by plated film, and Ni content in phosphate film changes according to Ni concentration on surface of Zn-Ni alloy electroplated steel sheet. For these reasons, wet adhesion of Zn-Ni alloy electroplated steel sheet coated by C-ED is governed by properties of phosphate film formed on surface. Metal ion balance of phosphate solution changes properties of phosphate film.
    Ni in electroplated film increases the Ni content in phosphate film and improves the wet adhesion.
  • Effect of Structure Transformation of Phosphate Film on Wet Adhesion of Paint

    pp. 1351-1358

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    Relation between structure transformation of phosphate film formed in proportion to composition of phosphate solution and wet adhesion of paint has been investigated.
    Fine and dense phosphate film is formed by phosphate solution of high Ni_??_concentration in Zn and Zn-Ni alloy electroplated steel sheet. At the same time, phosphate film becomes amorphous. Zn3-(PO4)2·4H2O dehydrates to Zn3(PO4)2·2H2O with cathodic electrodeposition (C-ED) baking. Decrease of Zn3(PO4)2·2H2O and restoration of Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O are observed after water immersion, but restoration of Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O becomes lower in the case of phosphate solution of high Ni_??_concentration.
    Wet adhesion of 3 coated sample is connected with restoration of Zn3(PO4)2·4H20 intensely and is very good in the case of lower restoration of Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O.
    After water immersion, new extractions have been observed on surface of phosphate film. Results of EDX analysis and electron diffractions on leprica to extract them have identified ZnO. In Zn and Zn-Ni alloy electroplated steel sheet, occurring ZnO becomes finer and less in proportion to increase of Ni_??_concentration in phosphate solution.
    After wet adhesion test on 3 coated sample, ZnO has been detected by electron diffraction on extraction leprica from both exfoliated paint film and steel side.
  • Transformation Texture Analysis with BAIN Relation -Monte Carlo Simulations

    pp. 1359-1366

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    The merit of use of BAIN relation in analizing the transformation texture was first described, as compared with that of NISHIYAMA (N) or KURDJUMOV-SACHS (K-S) relation. This was primarily because there were only three variants in BAIN, while 12 and 24 variants in N and K-S relations respectively, and each variant in N or K-S was oriented close to one of the three BAIN variants. Secondly, computer simulations of transformation textures were conducted on steels transformed from rolled austenite using variant selection rules. In these rules, the work done by specific stress on rolling against the lattice deformation (BAIN distortion) of martensite transformation was calculated for each <001>axis of austenite, and such BAIN variants that had the work larger than certain critical value were selected.
    Transformation textures simulated in this way were successful in explaining Fe-Ni textures experimentally determined by other authors. Evidence which showed the effect of the sense of the specific stress was presented; calculations based on the forward rolling stress could explain the case of transformation during rolling, whereas simulations due to reverse or internal stress of rolling were coincident with the transformation after rolling. Some explanations were given to the nature of such hypothetical internal stress and to the mechanisms of variant selection in martensite transformation.
  • Formation Behavior of Proeutectoid Ferrite and Hot Ductility in (α+γ) Two Phase Region in Low Carbon Steels

    pp. 1367-1374

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    Hot ductility of low carbon steels containing small amount of Nb or B was investigated with a Gleeble tensile machine. Special emphases were placed on the relation between the formation behavior of proeutectoid ferrite and the ductility in (α+γ) two phase region in the specimens with different austenite grain sizes (100 μm and 350 μm). The morphology of statically precipitated ferrite changed with an austenite grain size. In the case of coarse austenite grains, film-like ferrite was formed along austenite grain boundaries, whereas globular ferrite was formed in the specimen with small austenite grain size. Even when the specimen was single phase austenite before tensile testing, ferrite was formed during tensile testing at a certain temperature range below Ae3. This dynamically precipitated ferrite exhibited very thin film-like network along austenite grain boundaries, irrespective of austenite grain size. These morphology and distribution of ferrite affected the hot ductility in (α+γ) two phase region. The ductility became minimum under the condition in which the network structure of very thin film-like ferrite was formed. Such a structure was commonly obtained by the occurrence of dynamic precipitation of ferrite. The ductility in (α+γ) two phase region was markedly influenced by austenite grain size, namely, it decreased with increase in austenite grain size.
  • Corrosion Behaviour of Inconel 617 Coated with Silicon Oxides in Impure Helium

    pp. 1375-1381

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    Inconel 617 samples were coated with silicon or silicon oxide SiOX(0<X≤2) films by reactive magnetron sputtering method. The coated samples were corrosion-tested in an impure helium environment at 900 and 1 000°C. The impure helium simulates the coolant gas of a high temperature gas cooled reacter now being developed in Japan. The SiOX(X<2) films reacted with the substrate alloy, Inconel 617 at elevated temperatures. Silicon in the SiOX films diffused into the substrate to form the carbide of (Si, Mo)X CY. Nickel and Chromium in the substrate diffused into the SiOX films to form silicides. The SiOX(X<2) films exfoliated appreciably during the corrosion test and hardly protected the substrate against corrosive attack by the impure helium. Rather, SiOX(X<2) films enhanced a carburization of Inconel 617 in the impure helium.
    On the other hand, the stoichiometric SiO2 films had an excellelent protective effect in the impure helium at 900 and 1 000°C. However, the protective effect of the SiO2 film degraded a little at 1 000°C. Inconel 617 was carburized and oxidized internally to form aluminum internal oxide-layer at 1 000°C.
  • Effect of Si on Decarburization and Carburization of Heat-resisting Austenitic Steels in an Impure Helium

    pp. 1382-1389

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    The influence of Si on the decarburization and carburization of heat-resisting austenitic alloys were investigated in the temperature range from 800 to 1 000°C in an impure helium atmosphere. This atmosphere simulates the primaly coolant of high temperature gas cooled reacter. The results were as follows. The alloys with 0.50.6 wt% Si were heavily carburized or decarburized above 900°C depending on the temperatures tested, while the carburization and decarburization of the alloy with 3.4 wt% Si were negligible small in the tested temperature range. In the alloy with high Si content, the carburization or decarburization was suppressed, because a thin SiO2 film, having a strong corrosion-resistant properties, might be formed beneath the surface-layer of (Mn, Cr) oxide. However, the films defoliate the surface oxide layers on cooling.
  • Effects of Strain Rate on the Tensile Behavior of Stainless Steels, Copper, and an Aluminium Alloy at Cryogenic Temperatures

    pp. 1390-1397

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    By inserting small thermocouples inside the tensile specimen, temperature rise during straining and its relation to stress-strain behavior have been investigated for SUS304L and 310S stainless steels at various strain rates between 3.3×10-2s-1 and 3.3×10-5s-1, at 4K and 77K. OFHC copper and 2024 duralumin having quite different thermal conductivities have also been tested for comparison. The results obtained at 4K are summarized as follows:
    (1) At a strain rate of 3.3×10-2s-1, the maximum temperature rise was about 150K for stainless steel and about 30K for OFHC copper and 2024 duralumin.
    (2) Below a strain rate of 3.3×10-3s-1, serrations were observed in the stress-strain curve and temperature rise occurred only momentarily.
    (3) Ultimate tensile strength of stainless steel decreased with an increase of strain rate.
    (4) It is recommended that the tensile test at liquid helium temperature should be conducted below the strain rate of 3.3×10-3s-1.
  • Measurement of Fracture Toughness of A533B-1 Steel by Ultrasonic Method Using Point Focusing Probes

    pp. 1398-1404

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    A single specimen method for determining fracture toughness JIC has been studied using both ultrasonic through transmission and angle beam reflection techniques. Compact tension specimens of A533B-1 steel were used. By the use of point focusing probes, the crack extension in the midthickness portion of the specimen is measured. A computer is utilized in the measuring system for controlling apparatus, recording data, and calculating J values.
    The fracture processes such as blunting of precrack tip, stable crack extension and transition process between them can be revealed by this method. The JIC value obtained by ultrasonic method is in close agreement with that obtained by R-curve method.
    Furthermore, crack growth resistance curve (J-R curve) can be determined because there is a linear relation between amount of relative decrease in through transmission pulse height and crack extension length.
  • 誌上討論

    pp. 1405-1407

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. あなたも夜型か,発想パターン/科学万博寸見寸評 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.10
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  • Preparation of Large-scale and Optional Shape Molybdenum Single Crystals by Means of Secondary Recrystallization

    pp. 1408-1411

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  • あなたも夜型か,発想パターン/科学万博寸見寸評

    pp. 1419-1419,1422

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 抄録 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.16
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