Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 44 (1958), No. 2

  • INVESTIGATION ON ACID-RESISTANT HIGH-SILICON IRON (III)

    pp. 111-115

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    The effects of the cooling rate and annealing on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of castings of acid-resistant high-silicon iron were studied.
    The variations in cooling rate bring about great changes in graphite structure and influence mechanical properties but hardly the corrosion resistance. It seems that the annealing of castings is important only with respect to the relief of internal casting stress.
  • STUDY ON THE CHARCOAL PIG IRON FOR CHIILED IRON ROLLS (III)

    pp. 116-121

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    In regard to the graphite precipitation of various species of pig iron, the author measured the specific heat and the thermal dilatation with the specimens which had been vacuum-heated for gas exhaustion, and the results of these tests were indicated as follows:
    1) Gas exhaustion: The temperature of gas exhaustion from charcoal grey iron made by the Teikoku Seitetsu Co. was 200 to 300°C, and that from the Teikoku charcoal mottled iron was 1, 000 to 1, 200°C. The gas of Kamaishi grey iron was exhausted at a temperature of about 300 to 400°C, and the temperature of gas exhaustion from the electric white iron made by the Nisso Seiko Co. was not examinated by this test.
    2) Anomalous specific heat of vacuum-remelted specimens: The coarse microstructure of specimens of the virginal charcoal iron turned to the fine microstructure and the anomalous specific heat of it was not presumed a principal consequence by the vacuum-remelting. In the coke pig iron, the flake graphite was changed to the eutectic graphite and the anomalous specific heat became greater. In the Nisso electric iron, however, the microstructure & the anomalous specific heat were not changed at all.
    3) Thermal dilatation: In regard to the Teikoku charcoal iron, the thermal dilatation at a temperature higher than 500°C in vacuum was much more than that in argon gas under 1atm. Therefore, it was presumed that the graphite precipitation was more prominent in vacuum than in argon.
    In regard to the Nisso electric iron, the thermal dilatation of the iron at a temperature lower than 600°C was less than that of the other species of pig iron in both of vacuum & the argon under the pressure of 1atm. At a temperature of about 800°C, the thermal dilatation in vacuum was more remarkable than that in the argon under the pressure of 1atm.
  • STUDY OF THE HYDRODYNAMICS OF MOLTEN STEEL AT TEEMING OR TAPPING

    pp. 122-128

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    The inclusions or blow holes of fully-killed steel ingots are affected by the conditions of the molten steel-stream which is poured from a nozzle in ingot-making.
    The preliminary experiments were carried out through the nozzles of various shapes (dia; 1mmφ-10mmφ) and at various heads (0-1800mm) by using mercury, water and some water solutions. If the stream-condition was assumed to be mainly influenced by the Reynolds number, the results of this experiment through 10mmφ nozzle by mercury corresponded to those through 20mmφ nozzle by molten iron. The research was done without a stopper: it is near the case when the stopper is fully opened.
    The results obtained were as follows.
    (i) The stream which was poured from a nozzle was a perfectly stable laminar flow, only when the head of the liquid (the distance from the surface of the liquid to the entrance of the nozzle) had some limitted value. When the head was too large the stream was turbulent, and when it was too small, the stream was dripping. They were photographed at the ex posure of 1/1000 second.
    (ii) The range of the head where the stable laminar flow was obtained through one nozzle was changed by physical properties of the liquid. Especially by increase of the viscosity, the transition point from turbulence to laminar flow was moved to a high head. The range of laminar flow was extended.
    (iii) For the purpose of extending the range of the head where laminar flow was achieved, the short nozzle was better than long one within the limit of this experiment. The nozzledia was 10mmφ, and the length was 30mm-100mm.
    (iv) On the result of (iii), the nozzles with tapper at the entrance and short parallel straight part at outlet were designed. They were recognized to have a good character of flowing.
  • EFFECT OF SOME ALLOYING ELEMENTS ON WELDABILITY OF LOW ALLOY STRUCTURAL STEELS

    pp. 129-136

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    Nickel, chromium or molybdenum was added singly to a base composition of C 0.14 (0.18 for Mo series only), Mn 1.10 and Si 0.35%. Eighteen heats of small ingots, about 3.5kg in weight, were melted in a high-frequency induction furnace and then rolled into bars of a diameter 16mm.
    Tensile and V-Charpy impact tests as well as a simplified weld maximum hardness test
    with a taper bar specimen, were made under conditions of both normalizing and water quenching followed by tempering at 650°C. From these test results, the following conclusions were summarized:
    1. By Ni addition, the tensile strength was remarkably increased, while the yield strength only slightly, especially in quenched and tempered condition.
    2. In the quenched and tempered condition, the addition of Cr was very effective to improve the mechanical properties, increasing the tensile strength and decreasing the reduction of area and elongation.
    3. Mo increased tensile and yield strengths greatly both in normalized and quenched and tempered conditions.
    4. The transition temperature in V-Charpy test was lowered by Ni addition up to about 1%, but raised slightly by addition of Ni more than 1%. Cr and Mo considerably increased the transition temperature. Generally, notch toughness was improved more by quenching and tempering than by normalizing.
    5. The as-welded maximum hardness was increased only a little by nickel addition less than about 1%, however it was increased as remarkably as in case of Cr or Mo addition.
    6. The allowable strength limit of the steels which showed satisfactory weldability, was found to be as follows, provided the element were added singly to the above base composition:
    In the normalized condition:
  • THE EFFECT OF HEATING RATE ON THE PROPERTIES OF HEAT TREATED STAINLESS STEEL (I)

    pp. 136-142

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    In ordr to investigate the effect of heating rate on the phenomena in the heat treatment of cold-rolled 18/8-stainless steel, two kinds of heating rates, i.e. 104°C/s and 10°C/mn were applied.
    The temperature at which the specimen began to soften was far higher in rapid heating than in slow heating. This difference between both temperatures decreased with increasing. reduction of thickness of specimen.
    The α phase which had been derived by cold rolling began to disappear at about 500°C in slow heating and at about 600°C in rapid heating. At the temperature higher than 800°C, the amount of α phase in rapidly heated specimen was less than that in slow-heated one.
    Rapid heating brought about very fine grain size at the end of recrystallization.
    Precipitation of carbides was noticed at the temperatures between 600°C and 900°C with slowly heated specimens, but in rapid heating the carbides did not precipitate at any temperature. The corrosion behaviors of the specimens corresponded well to the precipitation of carbides, thus the rapidly heated and softened specimens showed good corrosion-resistance compared with the slowly-heated specimens.
  • AN ADAPTABILITY OF 5% Cr-CONTAINING STEEL FOR HEAT-RESISTING APPLICATIONS

    pp. 142-145

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    Hot work die steels have been lately used for structural materials of airplanes and reported that they showed superior results for high temperature services. DAC and DBC which contains 5% Cr are produced in Hitachi Metal Industries Ltd. as die steels for die casting. And therewith the writers studied on quenched and tempered hardness due to different heat treatment, mechanical properties at high temperature strength and oxidation resistance of these steels, for the purpose of inspecting their adaptability for heat resisting uses. It was concluded that both DAC and DBC showed good properties as heat-resisting steel at available temperature below about 600°C.
  • STUDY ON CARBIDES IN COMMERCIAL STEELS BY ELECTROLYTIC ISOLATION (IV)

    pp. 146-150

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    Carbides electrolytically isolated from low W-Cr cutting-tool steels were studied by X-ray and chemical analysis, and the following results were obtained.
    (1) The principal carbide in annealed structure of low W-Cr tool steels was M23C6 (κ-carbide). Cementite containing W amd Cr (θ-carbide) also appeared in the low-W grade steels.
    (2) By tempering of these steels, hexagonal ε-carbide precipitated in the first stage, and θ-carbide in the third stage of tempering, amd at last κ-carbide appeared by the tempering above 650°C.
    (3) In the fourth stage of tempering, an enrichment of Cr and W into carbides occurred and was increasingly marked with the rise in tempering temperature. The rate of enrichment of W into carbides was exceedingly slow compared with that of Cr.
    (4) In an chromium-free W steel, κ-carbide was decomposed by annealing, and by heating to quenching temperature, accompanied by the formation of WC and η-carbide. This tendency was reduced by the alloying of Cr, V and Mo, and was promoted by Ni, Co and Si.
  • MARTENSIT-DRAHT

    pp. 151-157

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    'Uu58ber das Verfahren zur Herstellung von Draht mit hoher Festigkeit aus kohlenstoffarmem Stahldraht und seine mechanischen Eigenschaften ist bisher eine vollendete Forschung nicht ver'ou82ffentlicht worden. Vor einigen Jahren richtete der Verfasser Augenmerk auf der Z'au65higkeit des Martensitgef'uu89ges von kohlenstoffarmem Stahl und es ist ihm gelungen, herzustellen kohlenstoffarmen Stahldraht mit hoher Festigkeit und guter Z'au65higkeit. Namlich wird kohlenstoffarmer Stahldraht einmal in vorst'au65ndiges Martensitgef'uu89ge in der Weise 'uu89bergef'uu89hrt, dass der Draht unter Schutzgas auf 950°C erhitzt und unmittelbar anschliessend in 5% NaOH L'ou82sung abgeschreckt wird, und dann bis zur Zugfestigkeit von 95 bis 105kg/mm2 wird es auf Temperatur 'uu89ber 350°C angelassen, ferner zur Erziehung einer noch h'ou82heren Zugfestigkeit einigemal kaltgezogen. Den durch diese Behandlung erzeugten Draht haben wir "Martensit-Draht" genannt. Martensit-Draht hat gute Z'au65higkeit und hohe Zugfestigkeit von 100 bis 200kg/mm2, und kommt in den Eigenschaften kohlenstoffreichem Stahldraht gleich. Ausserdem ist es rostverh'uu89tend und s'au65urefest, und hat gute Schweissbarkeit und Bearbeitbarkeit, ferner wird auch nicht spr'ou82de durch 'ou82rtliche Martensitbildung. Und der Verfasser erfand den industriellen Verfahren zur Herstellung von Martensit-Draht.
  • ON THE SHOT FOR PEENING (VI)

    pp. 157-162

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    The steel will bear, generally, a crinkly, clean surface after shot-peening and therefore the authors define the "cleaning action" as such. But the authors had little informations as to the effect of cleaning on the advantage of fatigue strength, which was a proper aim of shotpeening, the influence of shot properties on the cleaning, the effect of heating on the fatigue strength thus obtained, and so on.
    To get an explanations for these problems, the authors investigated the residual stress and fatigue strength of self-hardening Ni-Cr-Mo steel specimens, which had been peened with round or as-cut shots on their polished or as-rolled surfaces, the drop of fatigue limit by heating in the vacuum after peening.
    Some of the new results obtained were:
    1) The peening effect, which had been used somewhat vaguely hitherto, was divided into two factors; the residual stress effect and the cleaning effect.
    2) The residual stress effect decreased by heating over 300°C and the cleaning effect was affected by the initial surface conditions of specimens.
    3) The above-mentioned two effects took their appearances with increase of the fatigue strength.
    4) The shape of shot had an influence both on the residual stress and the cleaning effect.
  • 特殊鋼部会報告

    pp. 181-187

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  • 抄録

    pp. 188-195

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  • 鉄鋼ニューズ

    pp. 196-196

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  • 国内国外刊行誌参考記事目次

    pp. 197-199

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