Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 43 (1957), No. 4

  • SOME EFFECTS OF CHARGING SIZE ON THE BLAST FURNACE OPERATION

    pp. 421-431

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    During the period from April to October 1954, the test had been carried out to study the size of charging materials and the relation between the blast furnace condition and the size of charging materiais in Higashida No. 6 blast furnace of Yawata Works.
    In case of using sintered ore at the extent of 40%, the best result was obtained when the various materials were charged with the following size:
    Especially when high grade lump ores were used for the test, operation was carried out with 0.597 coke ratio.
    The relation between ore size, permeability in the furnace and reducibility of ore is very important. Much studies on the above factors have to be made and the results thus obtained shall be applied actually in the treatment of raw materials.
  • ON THE V-SEGREGATES OF LARGE STEEL INGOTS

    pp. 431-437

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    In succession of the investigation about the Λ-segregates of large steel ingots, the author is in the way of investigation about the V-segregates of ingots. He reported here some results of investigation about the V-segregates as an intermediate report.
    At the bottom solidification of ingots the author finds the fact, that dendritic erystals grow after the completion of zone of columnar crystal to some but so much restricted extent. This fact lets him suppose, that the occurrence of free crystals in front of solidified dendritic shell becomes already considerably vigorous even just after the start of the so-called dendritic crystallization, and that dendrites at the bottom are arrested to grow by the shower of free crystals formed in front of themselves, while the growth of dendrites at the side is not so arrested.
    And in the course of formation of zones of sedimentary and free crystal, free crystals being created in front of the solidified side shell are presumed to sink downwards and to be piled up on the solidified bottom Shell, forming inverted conical piled surfaces with some stationary inclination in succession. The author describes the V-segregates as those formed under the influenbe of these conical surfaces. Then, it is observed from the actual results, that the V-inclination of V-segregates has close correlations with the ratio of height to diameter of ingots and the dia-ratio of zone of free crystals; and some explanations are given. In conclusion the author refers to the relations between the flaws in V-segregates and varlous manufacturing conditions.
  • ON THE LIFE OF THE LARGE INGOT MOULDS MADE OF DUCTILE CAST IRON

    pp. 437-444

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    The experimental and practical results of the small ingot mould made of ductile cast iron were reported by many authors. However in the case of the large ingot mould, it seems to be not yet reported in detail.
    Therefore, the authors made the experiment on the large ingot mould, i.e., C-61 type (weight: 5, 230kg, wall thickness 130mm) and C-56 type (weight: 4, 900kg, wall thickness 125 mm) which are used at Yawata Iron & Steel Works, for the purpose of comparing ductile cast iron with ordinary cast iron.
    As the result, it was found that the ductile cast iron mould has a longer life. On the other hand, however, some peculiar defects appeared on the inner surface of them in the course of ingot making. Authors diseussed those results mainly on the points of its life, surface crazing and cracking, and change of the microstructure.
    List of derived conclusions are as follows:
    1. The favorable result can be expected from the large ductile cast iron mould.
    2. It has superior resistance to crazing and few exfoliation is noticed on the inner surface of tested moulds.
    3. Pearlite and spheroidized graphites are decomposed into massive graphites by repeated heatings to 700-750°C.
    4. Peculiar cracks of ductile cast iron mould must be prevented by the improvement of casting technique or the development of the ingot mould design.
  • STUDY ON THE CHARCOAL PIG IRON FOR CHILLED IRON ROLLS (I)

    pp. 444-450

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    It is said that the characteristics of charcoal pig iron is a better suitablity for producing chilled iron rolls than the case of other pig irons, such as the coke pig iron, the electric pig iron, and the remelted pig iron.
    In practice the following facts are the reason why the charcoal pig iron is used for manufacture of chilled iron rolls: its improvement of chilling effect, reduction of the mottle portion, least shrinkage difference between chill and gray iron, preferable graphitization in the gray iron core, slow cooling rate and increased fluidity of the molten iron.
    Up to this time investigators have given no comment on these problems. The principal point of these characteristics presumably is a presence of numerous graphite particles in the core and a high heat content of the molten iron.
    These characteristics have been considered to be caused by the nitrogen, the oxygen, the hydrogen, and the impurities. The author investigated experimentally these characteristics.
    Three laboratories in Japan (Mechanical Laboratory of Japanese Government, Metal Research Institute of Tohoku University, Laboratory of Mitsubishi Kozai Co. Ltd.) carried out the gas analysis of the charcoal pig iron, the coke pig iron, the electric pig iron, and the remelted pig iron. It was found from this analysis little difference between those determination.
    If the characteristics of charcoal pig iron have reference to the gas content, it is probably due to the state of the gas that has been indicated by Hiromu Tanimura1).
  • ELECTRON MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE WORK ROLL FOR COLD ROLLING (II)

    pp. 451-456

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    In sequence of Report I ("Tetsu-to-Hagane" Vol. 43. No. 2, 1957, p. 127), the quenched structures of the small specimens of roll material were examined. By water quenching after holding 3 hours at 860°C, specimens which had been completely spheroidized showed properly distributed carbides in fine martensite matrix. On the contrary, specimens imperfectly spheroidized corresponded to coarse martensite and retained austenite.
    Upon heating for succesive quenching, the effect of holding temperature and time was examined on another roll material, the best condition for the structure and hardness was found in the neighbourhood of 860°C.
  • STUDIES ON FLUIDITY OF CAST STEEL

    pp. 457-465

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    This paper treats results of studying simple and acculate measuring method of fluidity for the purpose of establishing standard melting practice of electric cast steel and effect of oxygen content in molten steel for fluidity.
    Results obtained are summarized as follows:
    1) Simple and acculate measuring method of fluidity of cast steel has established.
    2) Casting temperature has distinct relation to fluidity of cast steel, but other factors have more clear relation.
    3) Oxygen content in molten steel has no distinct relation to fluidity according to our investigation.
    4) Fluidity of over-deoxidized or over-oxidized molten steel is poor, refering to relation between [O]FeO/[O] total, [O]FeO+[O]MnO and fiuidity.
    5) Fluidity increases as MnO content in molten steel increases.
    6) Proper range of Al addition in ladle exists.
    7) Silicate inclusion must be removed during steel making process, as silicate inclusion lowers fluidity of cast steel.
    8) Inclusion such as SiO2, Al2O3 has high melting point and disturbs super-cooling of molten steel by the action of nucleus, existence of such inclusion lowers fluidity of cast steel.
    9) Al2O3 content in molten steel has no clear relation to fluidity.
  • STUDIES ON MECHANICAL AND WEAR-RESISTING PROPERTIES OF LOW Mn-Mo STEEL CASTINGS

    pp. 466-470

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    Mechanical and abrasion-resisting properties of low Mn-Mo steel that castings contained 1.1-1.7% Mn and 0.2-0.4% Mo were investigated.
    Heat treatments used were homogenizing and normalizing or double normalizing. Tempering were carried on by furnace cooling from 650-550°C.
    The results obtained were as follows:
    0.36% C, 1.63% Mn and 0.32% Mo steel castings had better mechanical properties than 0.41% C, 1.20% Mn and 0.22% Mo steel castings. Homogenizing and double normalizing treatment were found effective for toughening, but 1.63% Mn steel castings had higher hardness as annealed, therefore their machining were rather difficult.
    Wear-resistance of 1.20% Mn steel castings was relatively better than 1.63% Mn or 0.52% C and 1.39% Mn steel castings.
  • INVESTIGATION ON CAST IRON HAVING REFINED GRAPHITE PRODUCED BY MELTING CAST IRON COVERED WITH SLAG CONTAINING TiO2 (VI)

    pp. 471-480

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    It is well known that Ti exists in gray cast iron in the state of various kinds of compound and in solid solution in iron. The authors found a method of analysis of the Ti contained in gray cast iron in such different states separately under the following assumptions:
    (1) Ti compounds in gray cast iron were TiC, TiN, TiO, Ti2O3, TiO2, TiO3 & TiS.
    (2) These compounds existed as stochiometric form individually. It was confirmed that about 80% of Ti contained in gray cast iron existed in the form of TiC.
  • SOME EXPERIMENTS ON RESIDUAL STRESS RELIEVING

    pp. 481-484

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    In large forgings, such as turbine rotor, it is important operation to relief the residual stress. Therefore some experiments on stress relieving were studied by the Sachs's boring-out method. The specimens (70mm diameter, 210mm long) were quenched in water from just below Ac1 transformation temperature, and then reheated at various temperatures and during different hours (100-600°C, 1-90h). The results obtained were as. follows;
    (1) Residual stress-relieving depended mainly on the heating temperature, and the curve of stress relief showed linearity for it.
    (2) Heating for long time had scarcely affected on the stress relieving.
    (3) Variation of hardness at the surface of specimens by tempering showed approximately the condition of stress relieving.
  • STUDY ON CARBIDES IN PRACTICAL SPECICAL STEELS BY ELECTROLYTIC ISOLATION (III)

    pp. 485-489

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    Electrolytic isolation studies were carried out on carbides in Ni/Cr, Cr-Mo and Si-Mn constructional steels, and the following results were obtained,
    (1) In as annealed condition, the Cr, Mn and Mo concentrate in the carbides, while the most portions of the Si and Ni dissolve in the ferrite. The carbides in these annealed steels show irregular plate-like or dendritic shapes.
    (2) The carbides in tempered structure of these steels have stringy or globular shapes. The mean ferrite path from a carbide to the closest carbide particle is estimated as about 1.5 times of the mean carbide diameter.
    (3) Concentrations of special elements in carbides in these steels, tempered at about 400°C, are similar to the contents of each element in the steels. At above 500°C, the carbides are enriched in Cr, Mn and Mo, while impoverished in Si and Ni. The rate of enrichment of Mo in carbides are exceedingly slow, as compared with those of Cr and Mn. The rate of enrichment of Cr and Mn in carbides are retarded by the co-existence of Mo in the steel.
  • MATERIALS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS (I)-REVIEW

    pp. 490-501

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  • 抄録

    pp. 502-507

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  • 鉄鋼ニユーズ

    pp. 508-508

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  • 国内国外刊行誌参考記事目次

    pp. 509-512

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