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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 62 (1976), No. 6

  • 会長就任にあたって

    pp. 603-603

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  • Kinetics of the Hydrogen Desorption and Absorption of Molten Steel

    pp. 605-613

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    The rate of hydrogen absorption in liquid steel heated by an electric resistance furnace was measured by using an entirely different method from the conventional Sieverts' method or sampling method.
    The experimental conditions were selected not to be influenced by flow rates and the composition of carrier-gas, and the depth of immersion pipe into the melt. The values of apparent mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen in liquid steel, which were obtained from the desorption process, are as follows;
    km=1.04×10-2cm/sec at 1580°C
    km=0.98×10-2cm/sec at 1550°C
    The possible rate controlling step for absorption and desorption stages was discussed, and the results are summerized as follows;
    1) The rate of hydrogen absorption into liquid steel is controlled by chemical reaction at the steel-gas interface.
    2) The rate of hydrogen desorption is controlled by the mass transfer of hydrogen atoms in the boundary layer of liquid steel, and the activation energy is approximately 7 kcal/mol, which nearly agrees with the order of activation energy of diffusion of hydrogen in liquid steel.
  • Effect of Oxides on Nucleation Behaviour in Supercooled Iron

    pp. 614-623

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    As a part of the study on the effect of oxides on heterogenuous nucleation during iron solidification, the effects of Al2O3, SiO2, and rare earth oxides were examined, by measuring the critical supercooling of 300g electrolytic iron under special slag in a Tammann furnace. The following results have been obtained.
    1) The critical supercooling for heterogenuous nucleation is remarkably lowered than that of homogenuous nucleation. This value is 3°C by the addition of R. E. M, and this is extremely small when compared with 14°C by Al2O3, 30°C by SiO2, and 53°C by MnO.
    2) The heterogenuous nucleating potency of oxide catalyzers is dependent upon the difference of interfacial energy between the oxide substrate and δ-Fe. This interfacial energy can be theoretically explained by the disregistry between both crystals.
    x

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  • Continuous Annealing Heat Cycle for the Drawing Quality Cold Rolled Low-Carbon Capped Steel Strip

    pp. 624-633

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    A continuous annealing heat cycle is established for the drawing quality cold rolled low-carbon capped steel strip. The heat cycle is composed of the recrystallization treatment, rapid cooling incorporating water quenching, and subsequent over-aging treatment. Sufficient over-aging can be realized in less than lmin by virtue of the rapid cooling, in contrast to the past results in which over-aging times of 30 min-1 hr were employed. The main feature of the heat cycle is as follows: recrystallization treatment at 700°to 720°or 40 see; water quenching from around 600°C; over-aging treatment at 350°-450°C for 60 sec.
    The recrystallization in the above temperature range results in the reasonably large ferrite grains without the presence of the pearlite colonies.
    The water quenching from around 600°C is essential to balance the beneficial effect of the decrease in solute carbon against the adverse effect of the increase in the fine carbide precipitates.
    The over-aging treatment in the above temperature range is beneficial to achieve the efficient over-aging under a reasonably low solubility of the interstitial carbon.
    Prolongation of the recrystallization or over-aging treatments does not show any substantial effect.
  • Development of Water Quenching Technique for Cold Rolled Steel Strip

    pp. 634-643

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    The cause of deterioration in strip shape in the course of water quenching has been made clear, and the water quenching technique for steel strip has been developed. The deterioration of strip shape results from the uneven disappearing (particularly from the edge of strip) of vapour film on strip surface. In order to improve the shape, it is necessary to quench the strip under such a condition that vapour film is not formed. This condition can be realized by spraying water to the strip uniformly with the impinging pressure of over 15 cm aq. until the strip is cooled below the transition temperature from film boiling to nucleate boiling. This condition of jet stream of water can be industrialized by means of an appropriate arrangement of slit nozzles and the suitable control of water pressure in headers. The most important point in the nozzle arrangement is to make the intervals between nozzles less than those between nozzle plates and strip. The shape of quenched sheet can be improved to the same level as that of shipped cold rolled sheet through the appropriate control of quenching conditions.
  • The De-embrittlement Behavior of a Temper-Embrittled Low Alloy Steel

    pp. 644-651

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    De-embrittlement behavior of 3.5% Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel was studied by rapid induction heating to three different temperatures above the embrittling temperature range, holding for several seconds, and quenching Charpy specimens embrittled in advance.
    The main conclusions obtained are as follows;
    (1) FATT (Fracture Appearance Transition Temp.) is reverted to its original non-embrittled value within a few seconds at a high temperature and the increasing temperature increases the reversion rate.
    (2) FATT cannot revert completely by lower temperature annealing even with long time holding.
    (3) Activation energy necessary for the de-embrittling process is about 61 kcal/mol and the process may be controlled by diffusion of phosphorus.
  • Deformation Behavior of Iron Single Crystals under Simple Shear

    pp. 652-660

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    Measurements were made on the plastic deformation of iron single crystals subjected to the simple shear on the slip systems of {110} <111> and {112} <111> at various temperatures.
    The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The characteristics of three-tages hardening were observed in the stress-train curves tested at 300°K and 195°K with shear on the plane (112). The work hardening rates in the stage I and II were increased and the strains in the two stages were decreased as the shearing direction were deviated from the direction [111]. (2) The temperature dependence of the yield stresses in the shear deformation was markedly different from that in the tensile tests, the former being smaller. This suggests that the normal stress component is an important factor in controlling the mechanism of deformation. Moreover, in the shear deformations for {112} <111> and {110} <111> slip systems, the variations of the yield stress with temperature were remarkably different. (3) In the shear tests at 77°K, where the shearing plane was (101) or (112), the serration associated with deformation twinning was observed in the stress-strain curves in the work-hardening region. It was also shown that the resolved shear stress required to produce twinning varied with the shearing direction and plane. Both the slip and twin bands were observed on the surface of specimens sheared at 77°K. (4) The fine structure in the cleavage surfaces depends largely on the deformation modes; in the tensile tests, cleavage surface is composed of many blocks divided by [110] and [110] directions; similar blocks, however, were not observed in the sheared specimens.
  • Effects of Shape and Distribution of Retained Austenite on Static Tensile Properties of Two Ni-Cr-Mo Steels Containing Medium Carbon

    pp. 661-669

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    A study has been made of the effects of the shape and distribution of retained austenite on static tensile properties of two Ni-Cr-Mo steels containing 0.4 and 0.6 per cent carbon, respectively. It was found that retained austenite, when it appeared accicularly, or lenticularlyalong martensite lath or plate boundaries, improved ductility without dropping yield strength excessively in the steel containing 0.4 per cent carbon and both strength and ductility moderately in the steel containing 0.6 per cent carbon.
    When austenite retained massively along prior austcnite grain boundaries as well as acicularly or lenticularly along martensite lath or plate boundaries, were found detrimental effects on both yield strength and ductility in the steel containing 0.4 per cent carbon, but both the strength and ductility were improved excessively in the steel containing 0.6 per cent carbon.
    From these results, it may be suggested that retained austenite appearing massively, in ductile martensite, along prior austenite grain boundaries has detrimental effects for ductility due to the formation of microvoids between it and martensite in the process of plastic deformation.
  • Rapid Detection of Aluminium, Titanium, and Copper in Stainless Steels with the Electrographic Method

    pp. 670-678

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    The methods of the rapid detection of aluminium, titanium, and copper which were contained in small amounts in stainless steels were studied with the electrographic technique. Eriochrome Cyanine R for aluminium, Chromotropic acid disodium salt for titanium, and 4-(2-Pyridylazo) -resorcinol (PAR) for copper were employed because of the stability of these complexes in acid and their clear coloration. Barium chloride and EDTA solution were added into acetic acid solution of Eriochrome Cyanine R and hydrochloric acid was added into the Chromotropic acid solution and PAR solution to obtain a high current density and adjust the acidity. Optimum concentrations of the above solutions and conditions of electrolysis for detection of the above elements were given.
    The proposed procedure was as follows; The filter paper was soaked in the above solution and then put on the polished surface of the stainless steel sample which was connected with an anode. The electric current was introduced through the filter paper.
    The mark of vivid red purple color for aluminium and copper, reddish brown for titanium were directly printed on the filter papers impregnated with above organic reagent solutions.
    The limits of detection might be 0.1% for aluminium and titanium and 0.7% for copper.
    By this proposed method, reliable and rapid detection of these elements could be done without skilled workers at the factory.
  • A New Quantitative Representation of Surface Roughness and Its Application to the Analysis of Light Scattering from Steel Sheet Surfaces

    pp. 679-687

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    An automatic analysis system for surface roughness has been developed by incorporating a roughness measuring instrument of the probe type to a laboratory automation system. This system facilitates the measurement and statistical analysis of random profiles of rough surfaces which require a great deal of work and time.
    1) First a new quantitative representation of surface roughness was established in this system and the statistical characteristics of surface profiles of cold rolled steel sheet were analysed.
    2) Next the spatial intensity distribution of laser beam scattering from the same surfaces was examined by a photogoniometer.
    From these experiments the relation between surface roughness and light scattering characteristics of dull finished sheet was obtained.
    This result suggests the possibility of non-contacting, on-line inspection technique of surface roughness.
    This system will be useful for the investigation of surface characteristics of steel products, such as the surface appearance, paint adhesion, plating, and drawing qualities.
  • Propagating Shear Fracture Test of Large Diameter Gas Transmission Line Pipes for Arctic Grade

    pp. 688-695

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    So called separations are often observed on the surface of propagating shear fracture of line pipes for arctic grade, which are made of severely controlled-rolled steel plates. In order to investigate the effects of these separations on the propagating shear fracture bahavior, two series of tests were conducted. One is the series of full scale burst tests of large diameter pipe lines (200 m in length) highly pressurrized by natural gas (Athens Type Test). The other is the short length burst tests of large diameter pipes pressurized by a mixture of N2 gas and water (West Jefferson Type Test). The latter series of tests was planned to examine the effect of temperature on the propagating shear fracture behavior and to determine whether the toughness parameter for the propagating shear fracture is temperature-dependent or not. The results show that the separations have no influence on the propagating shear fracture speed and that the propagating shear fracture behavior is strongly dependent on the test temperature. The fracture speed increased and the absorbed energy decreased with lowering test temperatures. It is concluded that the toughness parameter for the propagating shear fracture should be temperature dependent and the intercept energy which is independent of temperature cannot be an appropriate criterion for the toughness required to arrest propagating shear fracture.
  • Automatic Rolling System of H-Shapes by Computer

    pp. 696-704

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    The Nippon Steel Corporation has long been realizing the necessity of developing an automatic rolling system of H-shapes. In an attempt to complete a new automatic system, not only mathematical models but also various sensors were first studied by the Nippon Steel Corporation.
    Based on these achievements, we have successfully realized a dynamic computer control system for rolling H-shapes for the first time.
    The new system comprises an automatic rolling system of universal mills of H-shapes and various subsystems which support the main system. The main role of the automatic rolling system is to determine optimum conditions of rolling.
    The system makes it possible to roll H-shapes uniformly in quality and get the required high-level quality of H-shapes.
  • Present State of the Direct Reduction Processes

    pp. 705-740

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  • Modern Rolling Mill Design and Technology of Rolling

    pp. 741-748

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  • Limit of Detection in the Photoelectric Emission

    pp. 749-756

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  • Report of the Electric Furnace Committee of the Joint Research Society of ISIJ

    pp. 757-762

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  • Report of the Special Steel Committee of the Joint Research

    pp. 763-769

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  • Report of the Subcommittee of Special Steel Committee (Examination of Hardenability Test Method)

    pp. 770-772

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  • 第90回講演大会討論会報告

    pp. 773-777

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  • 抄録

    pp. 778-784

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