Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 48 (1962), No. 1

  • 昭和37年を迎えて

    pp. 1-2

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  • 1961 Perspective of Production and Technique of Iron and Steel in Japan

    pp. 3-7

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 製鋼・転炉 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.47(1961), No.3
    2. Continuous Annealing of Cold-Rolled Sheets Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.49(1963), No.1
    3. 日本鉄鋼協会第60回講演大会講演大要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.46(1960), No.10
  • Activity of CaO in the Ternary System CaO-SiO2-Al2O3, CaO-SiO2-MgO and CaO-SiO2-MnO

    pp. 8-12

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    The e. m. f. measurement of double cells was applied to determine directly the activity of CaO in the ternary system CaO-SiO2-AI2O3, CaO-SiO2-MgO and CaO-SiO2-MnO at 1600°C.
    The e. m. f. of 54 kinds of slags was measured at 1600°C and their activities of CaO were determined in relation to the solid lime by the same method as in the previous work.
    Relations between the activity of CaO and basicity ratio of the slags were found and three diagrams of constant CaO activity were plotted for the three systems.
    The reduced basicity ratio (CaO/SiO2) R was introduced for the effect of third components on the basicity ratio CaO/SiO2 of the slags.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Activity of CaO in the Binary System CaO-SiO2 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.47(1961), No.14
    2. Surface Tension and Density of FeO-CaO-SiO2 Melts Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.62(1976), No.1
  • Effects of Blowing Conditions on Dephosphorization

    pp. 12-20

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    Investigation was made on some blowing conditions of L-D converter that might finish dephosphorization earlier than decarborization, using an experimental baby converter.
    The conclusions obtained were as follows.
    (1) The degree of preferential dephosphorization was expressed in terms of the maximum value of ΔP/ΔC, where ΔP is% of dephosphorization and ΔC is% of decarbonization. This degree was increased in parallel with a decrease of the time required for slag formation, an increase of agitation and an decrease of bath temperature.
    (2) The phosphorus content at the end of blowing was decreased against an increase of (ΔP/ΔC) max.
    (3) The time required for reaching the maximum value of ΔP/ΔC became the longer against a delay of slag fomation, a decrease of agitation and a decrease of the bath temperature.
    (4) The blowing time became the shorter against a decrease of the time required for the ΔP/ΔC reaching maximum.
    (5) If the (ΔP/ΔC) max was maintained constant, the time reqnird for the ΔP/ΔC reaching maximum was reduced with an increase of agitation and a decrease of nozzle diameter because of high temperature blowing.
  • On the Construction and Operation 0f a MaerzBoelens 200t Open Hearth Furnace

    pp. 21-28

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    As it was necessary for the Wakayama Works of Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. to increase the steel production in order to accomplish the extension program of the steel p1ant, it was planned to extend the furnace capacity from four 100-ton furnaces into two 100-ton and two 200-ton furnaces, and to build an oxygen producer to increase the production for the more use of oxygen for stee1-making.
    It should be emphasized that in the case of increasing the amount of oxygen the furnace bricks might be severely damaged, and the regenerator would be shut off by flue dusts. In this point of view, by adapting a Maerz-Boelens-type for the 200-ton furnaces, some constructional points were revised in the following ways:
    The upper part of the furnace could be hanged off by a crane to shorten the repairing time, the wall construction was presumed to reduce the fire brick consumption, the regenerator was changed into a two-pass checker chamber, the opening of the first checker was widened to be able to deposit dusts at the bottom of the chamber, and dusts on the second checker which had narrower openings were arranged to be blown off by air or steam.
    Because the crane capacity for this extended facilities was lacked, the bifurcated spout was adopted to tap 200-ton heats into two 1adles of 100-ton capacity.
    The constructional characteristics of the new furnace were described herein, and the furnace handling practice was discussed which was ascertained to be a successful operation for the cold charge which must be adopted until the blast furnace starts to work. The brick consumption attained was 6·8kg/t for the new furnaces.
  • Influence of Deformation Rate on the Tensile Impact Properties of Steels at Elevated Temperatures

    pp. 28-34

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    This paper describes of the influences of deformation rate of wide range on the tensile impact properties of several steels by using a high-speed impact-tensile testing machine with a large rotary disk. The deformation rate was varied from static region to 80m/s, and the testing temperature from room temperature to 800°C. The results obtained were summarized as follows:
    (1) Blue brittleness was observed clearly in mild steel and two alloy steels, and temperature range of blue brittleness shifted to higher temperature with increasing rate of deformation. This shift was conspiquous up to a speed of deformation of 10m/s, but was decreased beyond this speed. Moreover, at the speed of 40m/s the blue brittleness temperature was decreased on the contrary.
    (2) The similar dependence on deformation rate was also made clear, with regard to the brittleness of 18-8 stainless steel which was due to the effect similar to that causing blue brittleness as well as the brittleness of pure copper at elevated temperature.
    (3) At higher temperature over 600°C, the critical impact velocity was not observed so distinctly as obtained at room temperature. Tensile strength was lowered with a larger scattering as the deformation rate was increased, while, correspondingly, the value of elongation or reduction of area showed tendency to be rather larger. This phenomenon, named by the authors as “high-rate deformation softening”, was discussed in relation to the loadtime curves observed experimentally.
  • Effects of Alloying Elements on the Hardenability of Low-Alloy Structural Steels (SNCM8)

    pp. 34-38

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    Full investigation has never been performed with the effect of alloying elements on the hardenability and mechanical properties in a quench-and-tempered condition with commercial low-alloy steels, which are now widely utilized, and a more detailed study is desired which can be able to make clear such relationship in the case when the heat-treated article have a rather larger mass.
    A comprehensive study was conducted to describe the effect of an increase of Ni, Cr, Mo and V contents, and a decrease of C content on hardenability and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-Mo steel (SNCM 8: SAE 4340), and 11 melts were prepared to satisfy the test requirements. Special emphasis was laid on to examine the effects in the case of a larger mass.
    Hardenability test was performed by examining microstructure and hardeness of the test specimens cooled at 4 different cooling rates (Fig. 1) using a specially designed control-cooling quenching apparatus.
  • Fatigue Properties of High Cr-Ni Austenitic Steels at Elevated Temperatures

    pp. 38-44

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    Effect of alloying elements, mnelting process, heat treatments and grain size on high-temperature fatigue strength were investigated with AISI type 309, 310 and 330 steels to obtain some practical design data. The results obtained were discussed on the basis of precipitation hardening of austenite. In this experiment tests were carried out at 650°C, 800°C and room temperature, using a rotary bending fatigue testing machine.
    The results obtained are as follows:
    (1) There is a defite fatigue limit at 65°C which is higher than the proof strength at this temperature, and this fact is explained by precipitation hardening of austenite.
    But no definite fatigue limit is abserved at 800°C.
    (2) The endurance ratio at 650°C is considerably higher than that at room temperature.
    This indicates that the strengthening of austenite due to precipitation takes place during the fatigue test at this testing temperature.
    (3) At 650°C the fatigue limit is lower than the creep rupture strength obtained from a short-time rupture test (up to 10h). But the creep rupture strength for 1ong-time test (more than 10h) are lower than the fatigue limit. The creep rupture strength, therefore, is more important than the fatigue strength in determining the working stress of a high-temperature machine elements.
    (4) Carbon and nitrogen are very effective elements in improving the fatigue strength of these stee1s, while silicon and nickel have a minor effect, but no effect is observed with chramium.
    (5) Specimens melted in vacuum shows little influence on the fatigue strength as compared with that melted in air of the corresponding chemical analysis.
    (6) As the temperature of the solution treatment of specimen is raised up to 1200°C, the fatigue strength of type 309 and 310 steels is increased even though there is a considerable grain growth.
    (7) The fatigue strength at 650°C of austenitic stainless steels is contralled not only by the resistance of plastic deformation of austenite but also by the precipitation hardening which takes place in austenitic matrix during repeated loadings.
  • Metallurgical Investigation into Ancient Iron Nails

    pp. 44-49

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    Metallurgical investigation has been carried out on 28 specimens of ancient iron nails used in the famous old wooden, builpings in Japan such as “Kondo” (sanctuary) of “Horyu-ji” temple, “Hoodo” (main hall) of “Byodo-in”, three-storied pagoda of “Meitsu-ji”, five-storied pagoda of “Daigo-ji” and “Haiden” (oratory) of “Otonashi” shrine. The age when these specimens were manufactured are presumed to lie in the years from 607 down to 1800 A. D. Results obtained are summarized as follows.
    (1) In general Mn, S and Cu content in steel is very low and probably these ancient nails were manufactured from wrought iron which had been produced from sand iron.
    (2) There are a few specimens with nearly the same content of Mn and S as those in steel used at present. Presumably they have been produced from iron ore, not from sand iron.
    (3) Even in the same specimen, C content is remarkably different depending upon the position. Consequently, unevenness in hardness is also noticeable. From these facts it is presumed that these specimens were made by forging several, pieces of crude iron which had contained respectively different C contents.
    (4) The content of alloying elements are extremely slight therein but the content of iron slag is very high.
  • Electrical Spark Discharge Hardening

    pp. 50-63

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  • 抄録

    pp. 64-69

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 製鋼・転炉 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.47(1961), No.3
    2. Continuous Annealing of Cold-Rolled Sheets Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.49(1963), No.1
    3. 日本鉄鋼協会第60回講演大会講演大要 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.46(1960), No.10
  • 鉄鋼ニユーズ

    pp. 74-75

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  • 特許記事

    pp. 76-78

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