Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 73 (1987), No. 16

  • Progress of RH Refining Process in Japan

    pp. 2157-2171

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  • Nonequilibrium Phase Diagram and Physical Properties of Vapor Quenched Fe Alloys

    pp. 2172-2179

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  • High Corrosion Resistant Amorphous Plating

    pp. 2180-2186

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  • Development on Coatings for Gas Turbine

    pp. 2187-2196

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    [in Japanese]
  • Future of Metal Working in Steel Industry

    pp. 2197-2205

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  • Tuyere Accretion Growth at Gas Injection into Liquid

    pp. 2206-2213

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    A study has been made on the formation of accretion during submerged gas injection into liquid. Cooled nitrogen or helium gas was injected into a water bath or an acetic acid bath through an orifice of 0.1-0.15 cm in diameter located at the vessel bottom made of polyvinyl chloride. Gas jets and accretions were photographed. The strength of the vibration of the vessel were measured by an accelerometer.
    In the sonic flow region, a porous cylindrical accretion with a hollow central core was formed. In the subsonic flow region, a porous hemispherical accretion without the central core was observed to form. The vibration of the vessel decreased abruptly when the accretion began to form. The gas and liquid temperatures and the gas flow velocity were found to be determining factors for the critical condition obtained experimentally for the initiation of the accretion. The critical condition was explained reasonably on the basis of a heat transfer model around the orifice exit.
  • Oxidation-Reduction Equilibria of Manganese in MntO-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Melts

    pp. 2214-2218

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    The redox equilibrium between Mn3+ and Mn2+ in MntO-CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 melts at temperatures ranging from 1 245 to 1 450°C was investigated as a function of composition, oxygen partial pressure close to thatof air.
    In the composition range studied, the concentration ratio (%Mn3+)/(%Mn2+) increased with an increase in basicity and in MnO content. As a result, Mn2O3 is inferred to behave as an oxoacid ion such as MnOx(2x-3)- in slag melts. The above mentioned ratio increased proportionally to the approximate fourth root of oxygen partial pressure, as predicted theorically. The enthalpy change of oxidation of Mn2+ to Mn3+was found to be -9 150 cal/mol Mn2+.
    In the light of these findings, Mn3+ content in sintered manganese ores and slags for ferromanganese production was discussed in terms of equilibration with the environment.
    x

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  • Explosive Compaction of Fe-25Cr-5Al Heat Resisting Alloy Powders

    pp. 2219-2226

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    Explosive compaction experiments have been performed on water atomized Fe-25Cr-5Al heat resisting alloy powders and an optimum compaction condition was determined. Compactions were made using cylindrically axi-symmetric direct method. The ratio of explosive mass to powder mass (E/M ratio) was changed from 2.75 to 4.5 to vary the compaction pressure and duration time. At E/M ratio less than 3.0, the center of the cylindrical compact was not consolidated. When E/M ratio was over 4.5, a hole and cracks were formed in the compact because of the convergence of the shock wave and the interference of the reflected waves. An optimum E/M ratio was determined between 3.5 and 4.0, where no cracks were formed in the compacts. The specific density ratio of the compact reached 98% under that conditions. Although the tensile strength of as-compacted material was 12 kgf/mm2, the tensile strength was increased to 80 kgf/mm2 by post sintering treatment. Oxidation behavior of the explosively compacted material was comparable to melted and forged material, and superior to conventionally sintered and hot pressed materials. Hardness of the explosively compacted material in the temperature range from 400°C to 1000°C represented higher value than that of the melted and forged material. This result and the high tensile strength mentioned above suggested that the powder boundaries were strengthened by dispersed oxides crashed from the initial powder surface during explosive compaction.
  • The Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of a High-strength Ti-17 Alloy Die-forging

    pp. 2227-2234

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    The objective of this study is to manufacture a near actual-size die-forged Ti-17 (Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Cr-4Mo) disk in consideration of its jet engine applications, and to evaluate its mechanical properties, comparing with those of other high strength titanium alloys.
    The major results obtained are as follows :
    (1) High tensile strengths, ranging 122 to 126 kgf/mm2, were attained, and elongations were over 8 percent at widely sampled locations.
    (2) Fracture toughness values were 160 and 210 kgf/mm2·√mm for radial and tangential cracking directions, respectively, which were proved excellent in comparison with those of other high strength titanium alloys.
    (3) High cycle fatigue strengths and fatigue crack growth rate, espacially at high stress intensity range, had a great advantage over such a high strength alloy as Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo. Strain controlled low cycle fatigue properties were equivalent to other widely available titanium alloys.
    (4) Creep strengths studied at relatively lower temperatures than 500°C were equivalent or superior to Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2 Mo with high temperature applications.
  • Effects of Kind and Content of Metal Powders Contained in the Paint Film on Weldability and Formability of Weldable Paint Coated Steel Sheets

    pp. 2235-2242

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    The effects of type, size and content of metal powders contained in the paint film on weldability, formability and corrosion performances of weldable prepainted steel sheets have been investigated.
    Weldability is influenced by all of type, size and content of metal powders in the paint film. Weldability becomes better, as the size of metal powders becomes smaller and/or their content in the paint film becomes larger. The most significant effect is that the addition of hard metal powders such as steel and TiC into the paint film improves weldability to a great extent. Formability is only influenced by the content of metal powders in the paint film, resulting much inferior formability with larger content of metal powders in the paint film. Zinc powders contained in the paint film improve corrosion performances.
    Based upon these results, the paint containing steel, zinc and aluminium powders has been formulated and its weldability and formability performances have been compared with the paint containing only zinc powders, changing the content of metal powders in the paint film. It shows that the paint containing 30% by volume in total of steel, zinc and aluminium powders has both much superior weldability and formability than the paint containing only zinc powders.
  • Effect of the Addition of Al2O3 and Al2O3-Ca0 on the Reduction of Dense Wustite with H2

    pp. 2243-2250

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    The dense wustite plates containing Al2O3 or Al2O3-CaO have been reduced isothermally in H2 gas in the temperature range from 670 to 930°C. In the case that 0.5%Al2O3 are added, all of the added Al2O3 are dissolved in FeO phase. This dissolved Al2O3 promotes the formation of dense iron covering the FeO surface and slows down the reduction rate of FeO phase. In the case that Al2O3 are added above 1%, hercynite precipitates in the samples and accelerates the reduction of FeO phase. The rate of the reduction of the samples containing 5%Al2O3 are slightly larger at the temperatures above 890°C and smaller at the temperatures up to 800°C than that of the pure FeO.
    The rate of the reduction of the samples containing Al2O3 and CaO increases with increase in the concentration of the dissolved CaO because the effect of the dissolved CaO that promotes the formation of porous iron layer becomes larger than that the above mentioned effect of the dissolved Al2O3.
  • Influence of Solution Treatment under (Unrecrystallizing Condition for Austenite Unrecrystallization Solution Treatment) on Martensite Structure of 18% Ni Maraging Steel

    pp. 2251-2258

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    Influences of solution treatment under unrecrystallizing condition for austenite (the unrecrystallization solution treatment, URST) on micro-structures of lath martensite in 18%Ni maraging steel were investigated using optical and electron microscopes. In the present alloy, a small amount of boron was intentionally added to retard the recrystallization of the reversed austenite. Morphological changes of martensite structure by URST relate with dislocation density in austenite. In the lath martensite transformed from the recrystallized austenite, it is possible to identify the hierarchic structure which was constructed with lath, block and packet. The URST at relatively low temperature, may not only decrease the widths of laths and blocks markedly but also destroy the hierarchic synthesis of lath martensite. The present irregular distribution of block and packet is similar with those of steels containing carbon atoms more than 0.4% in mass fractions. The URST at relatively high temperature, however, realizes the fine but hierarchic structure of lath martensite, which is similar with those of steels with less than 0.3% carbon in mass fraction. Strengthening and toughening due to URST are sustained by these subdivided micro-structures.
  • Influence of Solution Treatment under Unrecrystallizing Condition for Austenite (Unrecrystallization Solution Treatment) on Hydrogen Embrittlement of 18%Ni Maraging Steel

    pp. 2259-2266

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    The purpose of the present paper is to clarify the influences of grain size of prior-austenite and solution treatment under unrecrystallizing condition for austenite on hydrogen induced grain boundary cracking in 18%Ni maraging steel. The grain size of the prior-austenite in the present alloy was varied from 24μm to 380μm by solution treatment under recrystallizing condition at appropriate temperatures from 1 153 K to 1 473 K. The crack growth rate was measured under the condition of sustained load in an environment of hydrogen cathodically charged in a 0.5% sulfuric aqueous solution. The crack growth rate of the specimen solution-treated under recrystallizing condition was strongly dependent on the grain size of the prior-austenite. The larger grain size was, the larger crack growth rate became. Unrecrystallization solution treatment, however, decreased the crack growth rate drastically down to the same level as the specimen with 24μm in grain size solution-treated under recrystallizing condition. Consequently, the dependence of crack growth rate on grain size of prior-austenite was not appreciated distinctly for specimens resolution-treated under unrecrystallizing condition.
    It was elucidated that the unrecrystallization solution treatment as well as refining of prior-austenite grain size retarded the enrichment of hydrogen at prior-austenite grain boundary by way of an increase in hydrogen trapping sites resulting from refining of martensite-block structures.
  • Effect of Compressive Strain Holding on the Low Cycle Fatigue Strength of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo Steel at Elevated Temperatures

    pp. 2267-2274

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    The effect of compressive strain holding on the low cycle fatigue strength of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel was investigated at 470°C. Strain holding had generally no influence on the fatigue strength of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, but exceptionally distinct life reduction was observed in the compressive strain holding testsat low strain range. This was considered not to be caused by the creep effects because the life reduction was not observed in the tensile strain holding tests, the value of creep damage calculated was very small and the distinct life reduction was also observed in the zero stress holding tests.
    Based on the observation of the oxide film, a mechanism was proposed to explain the distinct life reduction under the compressive strain holding at low strain range. The life reduction is closely related to the acceleration of fatigue crack initiation due to the oxide cracking. The same life reduction was not observed under the tensile strain holding at low strain range because the oxide which only negative strain was applied to was not cracked and at last spalled.
    Finally the fatigue life of the fast breeder reactor components was predicted on the basis of the presently proposed mechanism. Consequently the life under the compressive strain holding turned out to be 10% of that of the continuous cycling.
  • Effect of the Link Shape of Large Chain on Stress Distribution

    pp. 2275-2281

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    To improve the fatigue properties of a high strength chain, the relationship between the shape of link and the stress distribution in it has been investigated.
    1) Stress in the chain link under load gives different distributions depending upon whether a stud exists or not.
    2) Even though the chain link has a stud, the stud does not function under low load when a small gap exists between the link and the stud.
    3) Dimple is generated on the inner surface of links owing to studding. When the stud does not function, the stress concentration occurs at the edge of dimple.
    4) With increasing the contact area between links, the maximum stress under load decreases.
  • Charpy Impact Value of the Flash Welded Zone of High Strength Chain

    pp. 2282-2289

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    A high strength chain is manufactured by bending steel bars, flash welding and subsequent heat treatment. The welded zone is generally softer than the base steel. The cause of the softening is clarified in the present report. The method for reducing the softening and improving Charpy impact value of the weld is investigated.
    1) The softening takes place because the amounts of C, Mn, Ni, and Cr reduce during welding and consequently the hardenability of the welded zone decreases.
    2) When a chain is heat-treated at low austenitizing temperatures, the softening of the welded zone is remarkable.
    3) The hardness of the welded zone increases with raising the austenitizing temperature. At 1 050°C of austenitizing temperature the softening is not recognized. This is because the hardnability increases owing to the recovery of carbon concentration by diffusion and the austenite grain growth.
    4) The impact value of the welded zone is low when the softening of the welded zone is large. Therefore, it improves with increasing the austenitizing temperature up to 1 000°C, above which the grain growth prevents the improvement of the impact value.
  • Micro-structure and Mechanical Properties of Induction Heating Quenched and Tempered Spring Steel

    pp. 2290-2297

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    In order to clarify the characteristics of Induction Heating Quenching and Induction Heating Tempering (IHQIHT) as heat-treating process, micro-structure and mechanical properties of quenched and tempered Si-Cr spring steel (SUP12) by IHQIHT as well as by conventional Furnace Heating Quenching and Furnace Heating Tempering (FHQFHT) were investigated.
    (1) Micro-structure of IHQIHT material shows finer grain and less decarburization than those of FHQFHT material.
    (2) Ductility, toughness, fracture toughness, resistivity to delayed fracture, resistivity to permanent deformation, and fatigue life of IHQIHT material are superior to those of FHQFHT material. In case of SUP 6, SUP 7, SWRH62B, and S45C, IHQIHT materials show superior toughness generally.
    (3) It is presumed that fine grain and retained austenite of IHQIHT material are effective for the above strengthening and toughening. However, unobvious points are still remained, because the influences of short time austenitizing and tempering are intertwisted mutually.
  • Effect of Austenite Grain Size on Mechanical Properties in Spring Steel Austenitized, Quenched and Tempered by Induction Heating

    pp. 2298-2305

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    It was clearly shown in the previous paper that Induction Heating Quenched and Tempered (IHQIHT) Si-Cr spring steel (SUP12) showed superior mechanical properties to those of conventional Furnace Heating Quenched and Tempered (FHQFHT) material.
    So, in order to clarify the effect of grain refining by Induction Heating austenitizing and Quenching (IHQ) for the superior mechanical properties of IHQIHT material, the relation between austenitizing conditions and both grain size and mechanical properties were investigated.
    (1) Grain refining by IHQ is effective for the improvement of ductility, toughness, resistivity to delayed fracture, and fatigue life.
    (2) Short-time heating as well as rapid heating for Induction Heating austenitizing are effective for grain refining and toughening.
    (3) However, Induction Heating Tempering (IHT) as well as grain refining by IHQ has favorable influence on superior mechanical properties of IHQIHT material.
  • Surface Analysis of Steel Products by Angular Distribution Measurement in the XPS

    pp. 2306-2313

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    The angular distribution measurement of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proposed by FADLEY et al. is one of the techniques which enable in-depth analysis without ion sputter etching. This technique has been applied mainly to well-defined samples such as vacuum deposits.
    This paper describes the application of this technique to the surface analysis of steels : oxide films formed on a low carbon steel and chromate layer on Cr plated steel.
    When the oxide films are analyzed by using conventional Ar+ion etching, both of the intensity ratios of Fe2p3/2 to O 1s and the binding energies of Fe2p3/2 obtained for various kinds of iron oxide converge to certain values with the increment of ion dose, which makes it impossible to identify the structure of oxide films. Meanwhile the angular distribution measurement can identify the layered structure of oxide films by adopting a precise elimination of surface contaminants and correction of binding energy of XPS peaks.
    In the application of the angular distribution measurement to chromate layers on Cr plated steel, marked effects of the thickness of oxidized layer and the roughness of steel surface are found. It isshown that the effect of thickness is independent of take-off angle, and that the effect of roughness can be eliminated by using an empirical equation.
  • 鉄鋼の表面処理への期待と願望

    pp. 2314-2315

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  • パソコン礼賛

    pp. 2323-2323

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