Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 71 (1985), No. 16

  • Metallurgy and Physical Properties of Rare Earths

    pp. 1837-1845

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  • Metallurgical Applications of MHD

    pp. 1846-1857

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  • Basic Concept on GRIMM Glow Discharge Emission Phenomena

    pp. 1858-1865

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  • Technology of Silicon Material

    pp. 1866-1871

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  • Estimation of Coke Porosity Variation with Temperature during Carbonization

    pp. 1872-1879

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    The porosity of a packed bed of coals, which is transformed into coke during carbonization process, is estimated by taking the following phenomena into account:volume change by swelling and shrinking, gas production and weight loss of the coal during carbonization reaction.The porosity is determined by the apparent density of the packed bed of coal and true density of coal.Total amount and production rate of each gas are then determined experimentally for four bituminous coals which are heated at 0.042 and 0.083 K/s from the room temperature to 1 300 K.The porosity is measured by following JIS method for four bituminous coals which are heated at 0.05 K/s from the room temperature to arbitrary temperature above solidification point.The variation of estimated coke porosity with temperature agrees well with the experimental one.
  • Improvement of Productivity and Reduction Disintegration of Iron Ore Sinter by Increasing Size of Limestone Particles

    pp. 1880-1887

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    Sintering tests were carried out by using high Al2O3 ores to clarify the influence of limestone particle size on the production and the quality of sinter.
    Delayed decomposition of limestone and melt formation by increased size of limestone particles increases the permeability of the sintering bed and makes the heat pattern sharp, which leads to an increase in productivity and better quality sinter on the degradation characteristic during reduction.
    The measurements of fracture toughness of calcium ferrite and glassy silicate by Vickers indentation show little difference between their values.On the other hand calcium ferrite has the lowest value of critical fracture toughness, indicating that crack initiation characteristics, among minerals in sinter, affect the degradation of sintered are during reduction.
    Formation mechanism of the skeletal hematite was tested experimentally and it was found that magnetite coexisted with liquid slag melt is oxidized as the temperature decreases during last half stage of sintering.
  • A Study on the Particle Size Segregation in the Sintering Bed Formed at the Feeding Stage of a Sinter Machine

    pp. 1888-1894

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    A sinter mix fed into a pallet produces particle size segregation and hence, coke segregation through the thickness of the piled-up layer, which affects heating rate, gas permeability and productivity.
    By using chutes of various types, the authors have investigated segregation phenomena in the sinter bed formed at feeding stage.Experimental results are summarized as follows:
    A positive segregation of finer particles at the upper portion of the sinter bed is caused by ;
    (1) the increase of the horizontal velocity Vx of the falling meterial,
    (2) the decrease of the vertical velocity Vy of the falling material,
    (3) the promotion of the positive segregation of finer particles at the bottom region of the falling stream on the chute, and
    (4) the suppression of the turbulence in the falling stream from the chute to the pallet.
    The above mentioned items (1)-(4) are attained by choosing a proper chute.
    Furthermore, the difference of the segregation caused by various chutes are interpreted in terms of the ratio Vx/Vy.
  • Development of New Type Ignition Apparatus for Sintering Machine

    pp. 1895-1902

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    Kawasaki Steel Corporation developed a new ignition apparatus, the "Line Burner" for the sintering process by radically changing the ignition method at Chiba Works,
    The Line Burner was applied to Chiba sintering plant's No.3 DL (203m2) and No.4 DL (210m2) in August, 1983.
    This new ignition apparatus completely changed the conventional image of the ignition furnace.It's features are as follows.
    (1) Direct burning is possible through the Line Burner's multi-hole nozzle.It ensures more efficient burning condition.The height and inclination of the burner can be easily adjusted with this ignition system as changes occur in the operation.
    (2) The flame is very uniform in the width direction and the desired shorter flame can be obtained.The combustion chamber volume can be reduced from 27m3 to about 2m3.
    The ignition energy consumption can be reduced to as low as 6 000-7 000kcal/t-s without any operational problems arising.
  • Activity of FetO and Fe3+/Fe2+ Equilibrium in FetO-P2O5-Na2O and FetO-P2O5-SiO2-Na2O Slags in Equilibrium with Solid Iron

    pp. 1903-1910

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    The chemical equilibria of gas-slag reactions have been studied to clarify the effect of Na2O on the thermodynamic properties of slags under hot metal treatment.The slags studied are FetO-P2O5-Na2O and FetO-P2O5-SiO2-Na2O systems equilibrated with H2O/H2 gas mixture at 1 200°C by using solid iron crucible. The influence of slag composition on the activity of iron oxide and the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio has been determined.
    It has been clarified that the addition of Na2O to oxidizing slags is more effective for dephosphorization from liquid iron than that of CaO or MgO because Na2O in FetO-P2O5 and FetO-P2O5-SiO2 systems makes the activity of iron oxide increase more than the extents in case of CaO or MgO.
    It has been confirmed that the results can be expressed in terms of LUMSDEN'S regular solution model over wide range of composition in the system of FetO-P2O5-SiO2-Na2O, where aFetO<0.6 and XSiO2/XPO2.5>0.25.
  • Mass Spectrometric Determination of Activities of P2O5 in PbO-P2O5 and FetO-P2O5 Systems

    pp. 1911-1918

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    The activities of P2O5 in the PbO-P2O5 system at 1 300°C and in the FetO-P2O5 system at 1 370°C-1 390°C have been determined by the use of the combination of a mass spectrometer and a KNUDSEN-cell using the relation (P2O5) +PO(g) =3PO2(g).The obtained resultes are as follows.
    The PbO-P2O5 system:
    The GIBBS-DUHEM relationship has been found to exist between the activity of P2O5 obtained from the ion currents of PO+ and PO+2 and that of PbO obtained from the ion currents of PbO+. The existence of such relationship confirms the validity of mass spectrometric determination of the activity of P2O5 in slags from the ion currents of PO+ and PO+2.
    The FetO-P2O5 system:
    This system has been found to obey HENRY'S law up to 0.08 mole fraction of P2O5.The following activity coefficients of P2O5 were obtained at 1 370°C-1 390°C from the ion currents of PO+ and PO+2.
    γP2O5= (2.2±0.8) × 10-15 at 1 370°C
    =(2.5±0.8) × 1015 at 1 380°C
    =(2.8±1 ) × 10-15 at 1 390°C 0<XP2O5<0.08
    (Standard state: P2O5 (solid))
  • Reactions in the Continuous Melting and Smelting Reduction Furnace

    pp. 1919-1925

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    In order to melt pre-reduced iron pellets with high efficiency the continuous melting and smelting reduction furnace, a kind of electric arc furnace, was developed.
    According to results using pre-reduced iron pellets with various levels of metallization ratio, it was observed that corrected power consumption in which the reduction heat of iron oxide in pellets was estimated as the equivalent heat for the melting of iron was improved with the decrease of the metallization ratio of pellets.This was due to the CO boiling, which occurred in the bath as a result of reduction of iron oxide in pellets and played very important role for the effective utilization of electric power.
    Apparent reaction rates of Si and Mn were estimated by considering their dilution curves. The effect of bath mixing on their rates was considered.
  • Dynamic Recrystallization of Ferrite and Microstructure Formation during Intercritical Rolling of Low Carbon Steel

    pp. 1926-1933

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    Ferrite microstructure has been investigated in low carbon steel, hot-rolled in intercritical range by laboratory mill with various rolling reductions and temperatures.The results obtained are as follows:
    (1) Dynamic recrystallization of ferrite is confirmed to take place in 0.17%C-1.35%Mn steel intercritically rolled 80% through the experimental results that elongated ferrite microstructures consist of polygonal recrystallized grains and the incubation time for static recrystallization after dynamic recovery is longer than the time experimentally required for quenching operation to fix the microstructure.
    (2) In low carbon rimmed steel, rolling conditions for the complete dynamic recrystallization of ferrite are confined to those with high reduction and high temperature.
    (3) The dynamically recrystallized ferrite structure is less liable to change by heat treatment after rolling than dynamically recovered ferrite.
    (4) The rolling temperature at which the deformation resistance takes minimum value shifts to lower temperature as the rolling reduction increases. It is explained by the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization of ferrite.
    (5) Texture of the material containing dynamically recrystallized ferrite at midthickness is randomized, while material containing deformed or recovered ferrite shows well developed texture with {100}<011> orientations as main component.
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  • Evaluation of Dynamic Fracture Toughness Parameters by Instrumented Charpy Test

    pp. 1934-1940

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    This paper presents methods to determine two fracture mechanics parameters using load-deflection curve obtained from instrumented Charpy test.Two fracture mechanics parameters are dynamic fracture toughness (Jd) and material tearing modulus (Tmat). (Jd) is fracture resistance at crack initiation and it is necessary to detect the crack initiation point on the load-deflection curve for measurement of this value.On the other hand, Tmat is a parameter to characterize a stable crack growth and it is necessary for this to estimate an amount of crack extension.
    In this study, it is attempted, for the measurement of Jd, to detect the crack initiation point by calculating the compliance change rate from a loaddeflection curve.Next, Ja curve is estimated by using a key curve method and Tmat is determined from its slope.In addition, Tmat is evaluated by combining KAISER'S rebound compliance with PARIS-HUTCHINSON'S Tapp equation.The above results are compared with the ones of stop block test(which is a multiple specimens technique), and are discussed about those validity;a rather good agreement is ascertained.
  • Cutting Behavior of Steels Mixed with Martensite

    pp. 1941-1948

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    The cutting resistance value in turning decreased for the case hardening steel mixed with martensite in the ferrite matrix as compared with the normalized case hardening steel.
    In the cutting at the low and intermediate speed, the micro-cracks were observed in chip of the steel mixed with martensite.It suggested that the cutting resistance value was decreased by the formation of the brittle fracture in the shear region of chip.
    In the steel tempered for the softening of martensite, the cutting speed range where the built-up edge disappeared shifted to the high cutting speed side, and in this cutting speed range the side force increased.
    In the cutting at the intermediate and high speed, the damaged layer (D1) between the deformation flow layer (Fμ) and chip and the influence of the flow speed of chip (Vc) on the plasticity of Fμ, were important. The Vc and the difference of the hardness between D1 and Fμ increased with an increase of shear angle of chip (φ) in the steel mixed with martensite more than the normalized steel.It was suggested that the cutting resistance value decreased with an increase of the plasticity in Fμ.Increase of the plasticity in Fμ resulted from the rise of the temperature due to the increase of theVc and the hardness difference between D1 and Fμ.
  • Effect of Laser Cutting on Stretch Flangeability of High Strength Hot Rolled Steel Sheets

    pp. 1949-1955

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    Effect of laser beam cutting on stretch flangeability of high strength hot rolled steel sheets having different chemical compositions was investigated and the results were discussed from metallurgical point of view.
    Hole notches with a diameter of 10mm were pierced by either laser beam cutting or mechanical punching method for hole expansion test.
    Laser beam cutting resulted in much higher stretch flangeability than mechanical punching because the former cut surface was smooth, defect-free and had thin heat-affected layer in contrast with a rugged punched surface containing a number of microvoids and thick work-hardened layer.
    Change in hole expanding ratio of laser cut steel sheet was well explained by the hardness of the heat affected layer.A carbon equivalent equation which agrees well with the variation in hardness was tentatively proposed by modifing the WES Ceq..It indicates that the steel sheet strengthened by the chemistry leading to less quench hardenability shows higher stretch flangeability.
    Increase in manganese sulfide inclusion markedly lowered stretch flangeability.
  • Mechanical Properties of Alloy A286 at Cryogenic Temperature

    pp. 1956-1962

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    The strength and the toughness of Fe-base superalloy A286, which has been used as the structural material in cryogenic environments, were investigated at temperature range from room temperature to 4.2K by comparing with stainless steel SUS 304LN and Ni-base superalloy Inconel 718.The influence of grain size on mechanical properties of alloy A286 was also discussed.
    The temperature dependence of the strength and toughness of alloy A286 was smaller than that of steel SUS 304LN, and similar to that of alloy Inconel 718.Therefore, the strength of alloy A286 was higher than that of steel SUS 304LN at room temperature, but almost the same as that of the steel at 4.2K.The fracture toughness K1c(J) of alloy A286 was lower than that of steel SUS 304LN at room temperature but slightly higher than that of the steel at 4.2K.The strength of alloy Inconel 718 was higher, but the toughness of the alloy was lower than alloy A286 in the test temperature range.
    The tensile strength, ductility and toughness of alloy A286 decreased with increase of the grain size, especially at 4.2K.From the results of microstructure observations and fracture mode analysises, low ductility and toughness of the specimen having a large grain size were attributed to the carbides precipitations at grain boundaries.However, the K1c(J) of the specimen having even a coarse grain size of GS No. 1.5 was as high as 700 kgf·mm-3/2 at 4.2K.
  • X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Alloy-electroplated Film with Soft X-rays

    pp. 1963-1970

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    Chemical composition and coating weight are important parameters for the characterization of alloy electroplated steel sheets.In X-ray fluorescence analysis of alloy films, fluorescent X-ray intensities are generally the functions of coating weights and contents of alloy films.
    The X-ray fluorescence analysis using soft X-rays was applied to the analysis of alloy films.Soft X-rays, L series X-rays of the film elements, are absorbed by the plating film higher than K series X-ray.The influence of variation in coating weights on the intensity of L series X-rays is less than on K series X-ray intensity.The results are as follows:
    (1) It was theoretically and experimentally confirmed that the contents of the alloy films of Fe-Zn and Ni-Zn electroplated steel sheets are analyzed by using L series X-rays, the Zn Lα line, of the alloy element which are not influenced by the variation of coating weights in the normal coating weight range.
    (2) The intensities of K series X-rays are the functions of coating weights and contents of alloy films.The coating weight is analyzed from both of the K series X-ray intensity and the content determined from L series X-ray intensity by the method of (1).
  • IISIの窓から

    pp. 1971-1973

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    1. あなたも夜型か,発想パターン/科学万博寸見寸評 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.10
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  • 抄録

    pp. 1986-1987

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. あなたも夜型か,発想パターン/科学万博寸見寸評 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.10
    2. IISIの窓から Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.16
    3. 誌上討論 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.10
  • 表面処理鋼板の研究者は手品師か?

    pp. 1988-1988

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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. 抄録 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.16
    2. 誌上討論 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.10
    3. あなたも夜型か,発想パターン/科学万博寸見寸評 Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.71(1985), No.10

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