Tetsu-to-Hagané
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ONLINE ISSN: 1883-2954
PRINT ISSN: 0021-1575

Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol. 75 (1989), No. 11

  • The Current Trend of Iron Ore and Coal Resources and the Future Prospect of Ironmaking Division

    pp. 1957-1963

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    1. Recent Progress in Iron Ore Sintering Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.68(1982), No.15
    2. Effect of Mineralogical Properties of Iron Ore on Its Assimilation with Lime Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.78(1992), No.7
    3. Effects of Oxygen Pressure, Al2O3 and MgO on the Liquidus Surface of FeOx-SiO2-CaO System Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.86(2000), No.7
  • A View of Emission Spectrometry

    pp. 1964-1968

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  • Recent Development of Life Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    pp. 1969-1980

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  • Computational Fluid Dynamics

    pp. 1981-1990

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  • Corrosion Behavior of Metallic Materials in Liquid Metals

    pp. 1991-2002

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  • Development of Secondary Batteries Using Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    pp. 2003-2009

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  • Improvement in Retardation of Reduction and Melting-down Properties of Pellets

    pp. 2010-2017

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    The high temperature properties of pellets and sinter such as retardation of reduction, carburization and melting-down in packed beds were studied with quenching method. The results obtained are summarized as follows ;
    (1) Retardation of reduction of pellets is attributed to disappearance of micro pores caused by sintering of iron under the presence of a liquid exuded from wustite core.
    (2) Carburization proceeds mainly through diffusion of carbon from surface of iron, grown by melting reduction, directly contacted with solid carbon.
    (3) Retardation of reduction of pellets was improved by the adjustment of chemical composition of core part having high solidus temperature and melting-down property was ameliorated by increasing basicity of a whole pellet.
  • The Effect of Second Order Interaction Parameters on the Solubility Product of Calcium and Oxygen in Molten Iron

    pp. 2018-2022

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    The equilibrium relationship of the Fe-Ca-O system was discussed in terms of Gibbs free energy changes and interaction parameters to explain the difference between the thermodynamically calculated solubility product of CaO in molten iron and the measured one. It was found that the strong affinity between calcium and oxygen accounts for the difference while there is some uncertainty for the free energy change of solution of calcium into iron. Second order interaction parameters have to be introduced for consistent description of the equilibrium of the Fe-Ca-O system although the contents of calcium and oxygen are very low.
  • Standard Free Energies of Formation of CaO-Al2O3 Intermediate Compounds by Means of EMF Measurement of Galvanic Cells

    pp. 2023-2030

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    The standard free energies of formation of CaO-Al2O3 intermediate compounds formed of CaO and Al2O3 have been measured by means of Galvanic cells using 4CaO·P2O5 solid electrolyte. The following results were obtained ;
    CaO·6Al2O3 : ΔG°f =- 16380-37.58 T (± 1 730) (1 3731 873K)
    CaO·2Al2O3 :ΔG°f =- 15 650- 25.82 T (± 900) (1 3731 873K)
    CaO·Al2O3 :ΔG°f = - 17 910-17.38 T (± 790) (1 3731 843K)
    3CaO·Al2O3 : ΔG°f = - 11 790-28.27 T (± 1 190) (1 3731 635K)
    The unit is J/mol. The activity of CaO in liquid slag in equibrium with solid CaO·Al2O3 was 0.248 at 1 773K and that in equibrium with solid 3CaO·Al2O3 was 0.619. The standard state of CaO is pure solid.
  • Melting Process of a Rectangular Ice Prism Immersed in Bubbling Jet in a Cylindrical Vessel

    pp. 2031-2037

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    Very high turbulent fluctuation inherent in bubbling jet suppresses the separation of boundary layer developing on the surface of a body immersed in the jet and makes fluids in the bulk layer contact with it from all directions. Therefore, as the turbulence increases, the local heat transfer coefficient around the body is supposed to have almost the same value all over the surface and become independent of the shape of the body. This was found to be true from the facts that a rectangular ice prism melted away while keeping the similar profiles and that the local heat transfer coefficient was well approximated by the mean heat transfer coefficient of a sphere. On the basis of this result, the complete melting time of a rectangular prism was estimated by using the mean heat transfer coefficient of a sphere. The result agreed well with the experimental one. This agreement implies that the present estimation method would be applied to various non-spherical bodies immersed in bubbling jet
  • Spray Nozzles for Spray Solidification of Molten Metals

    pp. 2038-2044

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    Two types of nozzles were made for spray solidification of molten metals : Type A in which nitrogen gas for spray formation is supplied through a small annular gap, and Type B where it is supplied through four small tubes set coaxially. Spray tests for water, molten Pb and Bi showed that the later (Type B) is superior to the former (Type A) in regard to the mass distribution of metal droplets in the spray zone and blocking-up of the gas delivery nozzle by the molten metal droplets. Metallographic observation of solidified samples obtained by using Type B nozzle, suggests that in the spray solidification process, heat extraction from metal droplets mainly occurs during the spray formation by metal-gas mixing and splat formation on a metal substrate.
  • Influence of Mn on Solubility of C and Snoek Peak in Low Carbon Steels

    pp. 2045-2050

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    The influence of Mn on the solubility of C in ferrite equilibrium with cementite was investigated in low carbon steels containing Mn ranging from 0 to 1 mass % over a temperature range from 573 to 973 K. Internal friction method was employed together with chemical analysis of C by means of infrared absorption method after combustion.
    It has been clarified that Mn hardly changes the solubility of C in ferrite in equilibrium with cementite (0.018 mass% at 973 K), whereas Mn reduces Snoek peak height despite the fact that the amount of C in solid solution is constant.
    The proportionality constant K in the equation sol. C (ppm) = K × Q-1 max(10-4) was experimentally determined as a function of Mn content. K increases with increasing Mn content, which is caused by the lattice strain introduced by Mn atom and/or the chemical interaction between Mn and C atoms.
  • Contribution of Mn-C Complex to Electrical Resistivity and Influence of Mn on Solubility of C in Ferrite of Low-carbon Steels

    pp. 2051-2058

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    The contribution of Mn-C complex to the electrical resistivity and the influence of Mn on the solubility of carbon in ferrite in low-carbon steels were studied by electrical resistivity measurement together with internal friction measurement and chemical analysis. The variation of electrical resistivity and the deviation from Matthiessen's rule during quench-ageing were analyzed with the assumption that the decomposition of Mn-C complex and the carbide precipitation take place simultaneously during quench-ageing. The contribution of Mn-C complex to the electrical resistivity at 77 K ( αd) was determined to be 5.6 × 10 -6 Ω·m/mol with the assumption that only single atoms of solute C(CS) contribute to Snoek peak. Those of single C atoms (αC) and Mn atoms (αMn) were determined to be 4.9 × 10 - 6 and 3.0 × 10 -6 Ω·m/mol, respectivly. αd is larger than αC, but smaller than (αC + αMn). This result is reasonable from physical point of view. If the solubility of C is defined as Cs+ Cd (Cd : C in the Mn-C complex), it hardly varies with the Mn concentration and is 0.017 mass% at 973 K over a range of the Mn concentration from 0 to 1.2 mass%.
  • An Investigation about the Mechanism of Work Roll Wear at the Cold Rolling

    pp. 2059-2066

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    Through an experimental simulation using a large scale Timken tester, the mechanism of work roll wear in cold rolling was studied.
    The problem of short work roll service life in the cold rolling of aluminum-killed continuous casted (Al-killed CC) steel sheet seems to be caused by fast reduction of surface roughness. The roughness reduction rate can be affected by iron soaps which are formed by the chemical reaction between free fatty acids (F. F. A.) contained in the rolling oil and steel strip. Iron soaps can act to thicken the oil film in the roll bite by increasing the viscosity of the rolling oil, and accelerate the roughness reduction. Additionally, iron soaps are used to create a strong oilness improving effect, so they prevent the metal contact between roll and strip asperities, and restrain the roughnes re-creation by scoring.
    In the case of Al-killed CC steel rolling, because of its increased chemical activity with FFA, more iron soaps can be formed compared with capped steel, so the work roll service life can be shortened.
  • Compressive Flow Stress Characteristics of Carbon Steels and Stainless Steels during Cold Forging

    pp. 2067-2074

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    Flow stress-strain curves of material are necessary in numerical analysis, such as finite element analysis, of cold forging process. The behaviors of compressive flow stress-strain in carbon steels and stainless steels at various temperature in the range of cold forming are studied by static and dynamic upsetting tests. In the experiments, the stress-strain of feritic stainless steel shows similar curves with that of carbon steel in the temperature range from 30 to 200°C. Work-hardening behavior of austenitic stainless steel is more significantly affected by deformation temperature than those of carbon and feritic stainless. From the results of experiments, the flow stress is formularized as a function of strain, strain rate and temperature. The validity of this equation is examined through the comparison between load measured in upsetting test and that obtained by numerical simulation.
  • Determination of Fe2+ and Fe3+ Ratio in Iron Plating Bath by Measurement of Oxidation-Reduction Potential

    pp. 2075-2082

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    A trial has been conducted to apply Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) to the on-line monitoring of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in a chloride bath for iron plating having iron concentration of 160230 g/l and Fe3+/Fe2+ concentration ratio of 0.01 0.12.From the analysis of ORP's at different bath pH (0.51.4), temperature (2095°) and flow rate (0200 cm/s), it was found that the concentration ratio Fe3+/Fe2+ in the plating bath can be directly obtained by measurements of ORP and bath temperature. Also, the precision of this method was satisfactory.
    The present ORP method does not need such operations of chemical analysis as dilution and cooling of the sample solution, and addition of chemical reagents which contaminates the bath. Thus, it is concluded that Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio can be determined easily and continuously by simple procedure and apparatus.
  • Measurement of Paint Film Thickness on Prepainted Steel Sheet by Compton Scattered X-ray

    pp. 2083-2089

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    A new method for rapid meaurement of paint film thickness on prepainted steel was developed. In the developed method, intensities of Compton scattered X-ray from samples were measured as a indicator of paint film thickness by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and RhKα from X-ray tube was used for the incident X-ray. It was confirmed by experiment that intensities of Compton scattered X-ray from bulk samples were proportional to the reciprocal of absorption coefficients of X-ray in bulk. Intensities of Compton scattered X-ray from prepainted steel sheets were influenced by chemical composition of paints and amounts of Zn coating on steel sheets, and these influences were corrected by XRF intensities of individual elements measured simultaneously with Compton sacttered X-ray intensitity. Informations on samples such as densities of paints and amounts of Zn coating gave more accurate results. The reproducibility of values by the developed method was 0.15μm and the accuracy (variance of differences between data by the developed method and data by gravimetry) was 0.8 μm.
  • Effect of Sheet Surface Roughness on Clarity of Painted Sheet Steel

    pp. 2090-2097

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    The influence of base metal surface roughness parameters on the clarity of painted automotive cold rolled sheet steels was investigated. The sheet steels were dull finished by shot blasting, electro-discharge texturing or laser dull texturing. It was found that the painted clarity improved with decreasing of Ra, while it scarcely depended on PPI. Characteristic of the surface profiles of base metal was the waviness with wavelength of hundreds micron. Whose trace remained after coating and deteriorated the clarity. In shot blasting, the dendritic microstructure and the statistical fluctuation of grit collision generated the waviness and made it difficult to control its wavelength. And, in electro-discharge texturing, it is suggested, controlling the waviness is difficult similarly. In laser dull texturing, it was possible to reduce the wavelength of waviness to less than hundreds micron and then to improve the clarity without deteriorating the press formability. A larger fraction of flat portion in laser dull texture was also responsible for the improvement of clarity.
  • Mechanisms for Evolution of Bubble in Porcelain Enamels

    pp. 2098-2105

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    To clarify the bubble evolution during firing of one coat porcelain enamels on cold rolled Ti bearing steel sheets produced by continuous casting, analysis of gas chromatography and mass spectrometer of gas collected from the enamel on three kinds of enamelling steel sheets were analysed, and microstructures of both pickled specimens and fired ones were examined precisely. It was found that gases of one coat enamelling on Ti bearing steel sheet consisted of about 53% of hydrogen and 46% of nitrogen. The results show that hydrogen is thought to evolve from the water-iron reaction during firing, and nitrogen is thought to come from the air trapped in etched dent of grain boundary on steel sheet surface and between frit particles.
    On the other hand, gases of capped steel sheet and less-Al-high-oxygen steel sheet produced by continuous casting consisted of 10% nitrogen and 90% of hydrogen which is thought to evolve from the same reaction as before.
  • Effect of α/γ Phase Ratio and N Addition on the Corrosion Resistance of Si-bearing Duplex Stainless Steel in Nitric Acid

    pp. 2106-2113

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    Duplex stainless steel is widely used in various service conditions due to its high mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance. However, the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel in highly oxidizing nitric acid has not been made clear yet. In this study, the effect of Si content ( Si = 04%), γ phase ratio ( γ=2100%) and N addition (N=0.1%) on the corrosion resistance of 23 25Cr duplex stainless steel in 8N HNO3 + 0.2 g/1Cr6+ boiling solution were investigated with TIG welded joint specimen. An intergranular corrosion depth and corrosion rate were measured after the corrosion test of 48 h×5 periods. And then a relationship between their microstructures and configuration of the corrosion attack was considered.
    Si addition ( Si>3%) to the duplex stainless steels was effective to improve the corrosion resistance. The steel without N, however, was attacked at HAZ in case of γ<10% and γ>40%, because of α phase sensitization and σ phase formation, respectively.
    N content affected α/γ ratio, nitride and carbide precipitation. As for the adequate ratio of α/γ for the resistance of intergranular corrosion of the duplex steel, obtained value experimentally was more than 50% in γ phase, in the case of 25Cr-Ni-4Si-N steel.
  • 砂漠の地から見た日本(アレキサンドリア滞在記-2)

    pp. 2118-2121

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