Degradation of Metallic Surgical Implants and Biological Responses
Kazuhiko Endo, Koichi Matsuda, Yoshihiro Abiko, Hiroki Ohno, Tohru Kaku
Metallic surgical implants have been widely used in orthopedics and dentistry. This paper reviews the biodegradation of metallic implants and its local and systemic effects on patients. The review discusses typical damage of 316L stainless steel, Co-Cr alloy, commercially pure Ti, and Ti-based alloy implants due to corrosion and wear and factors affecting the biodegradation of these implants. Macrophage mediation of cellular and humoral regulatory pathways in inflammatory and immune responses to metallic ions and wear debris released from the implant is summarized. Implant-related factors influencing the susceptibility to local infection are also discussed.