Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy
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ONLINE ISSN: 1882-6121
PRINT ISSN: 0916-8753

Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy Vol. 100 (2021), No. 12

  • Heat and Mass Transfer of Impinging Jet Flow with Shower Head Flow on a Heated Disc in a Cylindrical Flow Channel

    pp. 273-282

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.273

    The horizontal temperature measurement on the heated disc in the cylindrical hydrogen flow channel with impinging jet was performed to examine the effect of the non-dimensional distance between the gas inlet and the heated disc (HN*) and the nozzle Reynolds number (ReN) on the heat transfer in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. Furthermore, two dimensional numerical simulation in heat and mass transfer on the heated disc was conducted to predict the growth rate distribution along the r-coordinate in the CVD reactor. The less HN* created, the lower the experimental temperature at r* = 0 mm because of the impinging jet flow. The calculation temperature along the r-coordinate agreed well with the experimental temperature except for HN* = 0.69 at r* = 0. When the non-dimensional surface reaction rate constant k* was 3.60×10-9k* ≦ 1.27×10-7 (k = 10-6 m/s), the predicted growth rate of the source material on the heated disc decreased exponentially with the r-direction because the film formation could proceed under the diffusion rate-determining condition along the radial direction. On the other hand, at the central region the influence of mass transfer due to forced convection discharged from the jet becomes stronger at 0.036 ≦ k* ≦ 0.126 (k = 1 m/s) than that at 3.60×10-9k* ≦ 1.27×10-7 (k = 10-6 m/s) and the film formation rate is greatly attenuated. The higher the distance from the nozzle to the heated disc HN got, the smaller the gradient of the growth rate in the r-direction at 0 ≦ r* ≦ 3.45 because the mass transfer could be controlled by the surface reaction if the HN* increased. The more the HN* and the less the reaction rate were constant, the smaller the coefficient of variation of the growth rate. In this study, the minimum coefficient of variation for the growth rate distribution was about 0.41. Therefore, it is suggested that the hybrid supply system of the raw material for chemical vapor deposition from not only impinging jet flow but also shower head flow could be suitable.
  • Characterization of Vertically Aligned MoS2 Thin Film on Mo Electrode for Hydrogen Evolution Catalyst

    pp. 283-287

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.283

    Vertically aligned MoS2 (V-MoS2) thin film was investigated to achieve a cost-effective hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalyst. As a simple method, the V-MoS2 film was deposited by partial sulphurisation of RF sputtered Mo film. The residual Mo layer was used as a bottom electrode instead of an expensive conductive substrate such as a glassy carbon. Different thicknesses of V-MoS2 were deposited to investigate an HER catalyst characteristic for the V-MoS2/Mo structure. The crystallinity of V-MoS2 was maintained even though the thickness of V-MoS2 was controlled, and was confirmed by comparing the X-ray diffraction, Raman measurement, and estimated exchange current density. As the thickness of V-MoS2 was decreased to 50 nm, the overpotential and Tafel slope were reduced to 0.38 V at 10 mA/cm2 and 87 mV/dec, respectively. Based on the theoretical tendency of Tafel slope decline, the estimated optimal V-MoS2 thickness was 40 nm for the V-MoS2/Mo structure. The fabrication process for V-MoS2 and the estimated result from the variation of the thickness of V-MoS2 could help to realise a cost-effective HER catalyst using MoS2.
  • Optimizing Ammonia Adsorption Using Activated Carbon from Tamarind Pulp

    pp. 288-293

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.288

    Ammonia is an essential waste from fish and shrimp which has an effect on fish and shrimp transportation for export. This study aimed to remove ammonia by Activated Carbon adsorption. The activated carbon was prepared from Tamarind pulp using different methods (NaOH, H2SO4, the hydrothermal technique and activated by H2SO4 and H2SO4 hydrothermal followed by NaOH). The Activated Carbon was characterized by and Iodine number and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed that the iodine number of activated carbon prepared by the hydrothermal technique and activated by H2SO4 have the highest surface area and porosity at 537 mg/g, and the functional group on activated carbon surface is carbonyl and sulfonyl group. For ammonia adsorption, the experiments were designed by Box-Behnken design at 3 factors 3 levels including Contact time (10, 95 and 180 min), Dosage of activated carbon (0.5, 1.25 and 2.0 g) and pH of the solution (2, 6.5 and 11). The concentration of ammonia was determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The result showed that the main effects and the interaction effects were found significant effect on ammonia adsorption at confidence level of 95%. However, the interaction effects between contact time and activated carbon dosage was insignificant. Finally, the optimized results suggested that 48.32 ± 0.82% of ammonia concentration could be removed by activated carbon from tamarind pulp under the following conditions: pH of 11, a contact time of 95 min, and activated carbon dosage of 2 g/100 mL. The results are believed to be of importance to fish and shrimp transportation for reduced ammonia and other similar applications.
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Energy Consumption Analysis of Metal Hydride in Its Hydrogen Charging Process

    pp. 294-300

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.294

    Metal hydride is an alloy that reversibly reacts with hydrogen gas. Because it has low hydrogen storage pressure, it can contribute to the abatement of compression power in the hydrogen charging process. Despite this fact, owing to the exothermic reaction in its charging process, a longer hydrogen charging time is required. As a countermeasure to this problem, a cooling process for the metal hydride bed is necessary to enhance the reaction rate of the hydrogen charging process. Considering this background, in this study, an energy consumption comparison between metal hydride and compressed hydrogen (conventional) is conducted. In addition, a mathematical model of the hydrogen charging process is developed to estimate the effect of the metal hydride cooling process on the hydrogen charging time. The mathematical model is validated by comparison with experimental results and used to simulate different cooling conditions (outside temperature: 233, 253, 273, and 298 K). It was found that metal hydride could reduce the compression power compared to compressed hydrogen (maximum reduction of 7.57 kwh/kg-H2) and reduce the hydrogen charging time by removing reaction heat from the metal hydride tank (886 s at outside temperature 233 K, 1902 s at 273 K).
  • Catalytic Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate into Biodiesel Over Sulfonated Iron Oxide Catalyst

    pp. 301-306

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.301

    The palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), as a low-cost feedstock, was catalytically esterified into biodiesel (also known as fatty acid methyl ester, FAME) using sulfonated iron oxide (HSO3ˉ/Fe2O3) catalyst. In this work, the catalyst was synthesised via self-propagating combustion (SPC) method, towards a greener synthesis technique, followed by sulfonation with chlorosulfonic acid (HSO3Cl) to enhance the catalyst’s acid properties. The catalysts were characterised and the success of sulfonation process was determined. From this study, Fe2O3 catalysts were proven to be pure and single-phase. The success of the sulfonation then was verified by the presence of sulfur, functional groups of S-O asymmetric vibration and S=O symmetric vibration, and increasing total acidity. Then, the sulfonated Fe2O3 catalyst was used to esterify the PFAD feedstock in methanol in which the esterification parameters were also optimized to obtain maximum free fatty acid (FFA) conversion. It was found that 15:1 of methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio, 4 wt.% of catalyst loading, 80 °C of reaction temperature and 5 h of reaction time produced 95.5% of FFA conversion. Interestingly, the sulfonated Fe2O3 catalyst can be considered as a superacid solid catalyst that enables boosting the esterification of the PFAD feedstock into biodiesel.
  • Production of Cellulose From Bamboo Shoot Shell Using Hydrothermal Technique

    pp. 307-312

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.307

    The preparation and characterization of purified cellulose from bamboo shoot shell were studied using fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The preparation of cellulose fiber included extraction of cellulose from bamboo shoot shell by treatment with 5 % NaOH and 4 % H2O2, and purification of cellulose fiber using hydrothermal technique. The result showed that cellulose has been successfully extracted at a 32.56% yield by the 5% NaOH / 4% H2O2 treatment, and the purified cellulose was produced using autoclaving at the temperature of 120 °C and pressure at 0.1 MPa for 2 h 5 min, with the % recovery of purified cellulose around 94.08. Bamboo shoot shell and cellulose sample were further characterized using FTIR technique. It was found that the 5% NaOH / 4% H2O2 treatment eliminated lignin and hemicellulose from bamboo shoot shell but did not affect cellulose. The hydrothermal technique did not affect the destruction of the cellulose structure as well. Comparison of the SEM image showed that cellulose was separated into individual microfibers after the 5% NaOH / 4% H2O2 treatment while the SEM image of purified cellulose was the small thread-like fibers with smoother surface. Therefore, hydrothermal treatment can be performed for purification of cellulose.
  • Methanol Dehydration to Dimethyl Ether over Kaolinite-supported TiO2 Catalysts

    pp. 313-321

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.313

    The present work aims to study the catalytic performance of kaolinite (KN)-supported TiO2 in the production of dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol. KN was doped with 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 wt% Ti composite particles via the sol-gel method. The performance of the TiO2/KN catalysts were then tested in a fixed-bed reactor having a temperature in the range 200-350 °C under atmospheric pressure. The molar ratio of methanol to nitrogen, total gas flow rate, and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) were set to 1:4, 60 mL/min at standard temperature and pressure, and 2.054 h-1, respectively. The catalysts were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, and temperature-programmed desorption of NH3. The final products were analyzed using gas chromatography. An increase in Ti loading yielded a higher methanol conversion rate owing to the increase in the number of acid sites on the catalyst surface. The highest methanol conversion rate of 79% was reported for TiO2/KN (Ti=15%) at 350 °C. However, TiO2/KN (Ti=15%) exhibited low selectivity to DME owing to the decomposition of DME to CH4 and CO2. Our results indicate the optimum Ti loading to be TiO2/KN (Ti=10%), which resulted in a catalyst that was active at 250 °C and showed good selectivity to DME.
  • Tableof Contents (in English)

    p. Tce12_1

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.Tce12_1

  • Tableof Contents (in Japanese)

    p. Tcj12_1

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.Tcj12_1

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