Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy
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ONLINE ISSN: 1882-6121
PRINT ISSN: 0916-8753

Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy Vol. 101 (2022), No. 4

  • Effects of Pulverization Forces on Structural Features and Enzymatic Digestibility of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    pp. 56-65

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.101.56

    In this study, Japanese cedar powder (JCP) were produced in a vibration mill with ring media by applying two types of pulverization forces: shear-dominant and compression-dominant. The JCP samples was investigated to understand the effects of the two pulverization treatments on particle size and shape, enzymatic digestibility, domain size, and cellulose crystallinity index (CrI). Furthermore, particle shape of the holocelulose and holocellulose specific surface area (H-SSA) were examined by removing lignin from pulverized JCP. As a result, the relationships among the structural changes, types of pulverization treatment, and observed enhancements in the H-SSA and enzymatic digestibility were revealed. Upon shear-dominant pulverization, the holocellulose sample exhibited a fibrous structure; the domain size of JCP was reduced from 18 to 8 nm after pulverization, and the CrI decreased slightly (from 37% to 27%). Upon compression-dominant pulverization, the holocellulose structure was spherical; the CrI of the pulverized JCP decreased from 37% to 9% with no corresponding reduction in the domain size. Both the domain size reduction upon shear-dominant pulverization and the CrI decrease upon compression-dominant pulverization contributed to the increase in the H-SSA, indirectly improving the enzymatic digestibility of the JCP samples.
  • Environmental Performance and Operational Analysis of a Sewage Sludge Fermentation Solid Oxidation Fuel Cell System Using Fe2O3 and Kanuma Clay

    pp. 66-75

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.101.66

    This study discussed the performance of an integrated indirect gasification solid oxidation fuel cell (IIG-SOFC) in consideration of LCA thinking. Generally, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in gasified biomass causes cell voltage in a stack to decline over time. Although the biomass resource such as sewage sludge are carbon-neutral, a decline in SOFC performance creates environmental disadvantage of global warming potential (GWP); as such, it is necessary to remove H2S via adsorption, and typically, ferric oxide (Fe2O3) is used for desulfurization. However, Fe2O3 imposes a considerable environmental burden of abiotic depletion potential (ADP). Kanuma clay (Kc) which is a natural sorbent was proposed as a viable substitute in our previous study, but Kc is characterized by a low adsorption capacity. As such, limitations associated with the adsorption column size and frequency with which adsorbents should be changed mean that utilizing a large amount of Kc does not necessarily result in a high desulfurization rate. Therefore, we investigated the optimal performance of IIG-SOFC utilizing Kc using exergy analysis and LCA. As a result, the maximum exergy efficiency was 28.2%. Likewise, the smallest GWP and ADP was achieved at a desulfurization rate of 100%, Kc usage ratio of 4.5%, and adsorption temperature of 120 °C.
  • Influence of the Pore Structure of Molybdic Acid Immobilized Silica-alumina Hollow Spheres on Acid-promoted Hydrogen Evolution from Ammonia Borane

    pp. 76-82

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.101.76

    In the present work, we investigated the influence of the pore structure of molybdic acid-immobilized silicaalumina hollow spheres on their activity towards acid-promoted hydrogen evolution from aqueous ammonia borane solution. To control the pore structure, a surfactant, cetyltrimetylammonium bromide, and a swelling agent, 1-dodecylamine, were used during the shell formation of the hollow spheres. The amount of surfactant and swelling agent were found to influence the amount of mesopores formed. Further, the crystallinity of the immobilized molybdic oxide species as well as the ratio of inactive mixed oxides of aluminum and molybdenum decreased with increasing amounts of the surfactant and swelling agent. The immobilized hollow spheres with the high dispersed molybdic oxide and the inactive mixed oxide ratio also exhibited high activity towards hydrogen evolution from aqueous ammonia borane solution. The crystallinity of molybdic oxide tended to decrease with a decrease in the amount of immobilized molybdic acid. Furthermore, the hollow spheres with low molybdic oxide content exhibited high activity towards hydrogen evolution.
  • Isolation of Ionic Liquid-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Adaptive Laboratory Evolution, and Bioethanol Production from Cellulose in the Presence of Ionic Liquids

    pp. 83-87

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.101.83

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerant to an imidazolium ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim] Cl), was isolated using adaptive laboratory evolution, in which yeast was repeatedly cultured in a medium with progressively increasing concentrations of [Bmim]Cl. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that mutations causing amino acid changes occurred in the open reading frames of two genes, GLO3 and EST2. Since no mutations were found in any of the genes that have been shown to be involved in ionic liquid tolerance, this mutant strain is assumed to have acquired ionic liquid tolerance in a novel mechanism. Using this ionic liquid-tolerant yeast strain, we succeeded in producing bioethanol in the presence of 500 mM [Bmim]Cl from glucose obtained via ionic liquid and cellulase treatment of cellulose.
  • Tableof Contents (in English)

    p. Tce4_1

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.101.Tce4_1

  • Tableof Contents (in Japanese)

    p. Tcj4_1

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.101.Tcj4_1

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