Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy
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ONLINE ISSN: 1882-6121
PRINT ISSN: 0916-8753

Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy Vol. 90 (2011), No. 5

  • Energy Balance of a Staged Process for the Supercritical Water Gasification of a Hydrogen Fermentation Residue of Food Waste

    pp. 455-460

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.90.455

    This study was conducted to calculate the energy balance of supercritical water gasification with an activated carbon catalyst for a hydrogen fermentation residue of soybean fiber (SFHFR). To circumvent the problem of plugging, we examined the gasification of SFHFR by a staged operation with alternate feeding of water and feedstock. The calculations were applied to a gasification reaction conducted within a tubular reactor at 600°C and 25 MPa, with an average residence time of 73 s. The calculation results were a cold gas efficiency ηR [(amount of energy recovery from feedstock as product gas, Eg) / (energy supply from feedstock, Ef)] of 0.72 and an energy efficiency ηe, Eg / [(heat supplied by the electric furnace, Ei) + (energy supply from feedstock, Ef)] of 0.30. A comparison between continuous operation and the operation in staged intervals confirmed the effectiveness of the latter.
  • Improved Efficiency of Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Thin-film Solar Cells by Adding Glycerol to PEDOT:PSS Solutions for Fabricating Buffer Layers

    pp. 461-465

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.90.461

    We have investigated dependence of device characteristics of bulk-heterojunction organic thin-film solar cells on concentration of glycerol addition to poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) : poly (4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solutions for fabricating buffer layers. The device structure is ITO/buffer/regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM)/Al where glycerol concentration is up to 13.0 wt%. Glycerol addition is effective for improving power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.25 to 1.41% because of increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) without decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc).
  • Development of Direct Production Process of Diesel Fuel from Vegetable Oils

    pp. 466-470

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.90.466

    A new direct production process was developed for making high quality diesel fuel from oils and fats. In this process, which was operated under atmospheric pressure by using neither methanol nor hydrogen, no glycerin was produced. The product of the present process was composed of small amount gas (CO2, light hydrocarbons and minor amount of CO) and liquid hydrocarbons (C10-C20). The liquid product was composed of olefins and paraffins with straight and branched chain structure.
  • Non-catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Monoxide by Addition of Kerosene

    pp. 471-473

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.90.471

    The non-catalytic reductions of nitrogen monoxide by using methane and kerosene as a reductant were experimentally investigated. The temperatures were ranging from 493 to 1373 K. In these experiments, the inlet concentration of NO was approximately 150ppm, that of methane was ranging from 8.3-40 ×103ppm, that of kerosene was ranging from 4.52 to 43.0ppm and that of oxygen was ranging 1.75 to 7.00%. Kerosene can be used as a reductant for the non-catalytic NO reduction.

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