Study on the Effect of Reaction Temperature, Time, and Solid Loading on Lignin from Oil Palm Frond (OPF) under Subcritical Phenol Conditions as a Precursor for Carbon Fiber Production
Khalidatul Athirah KHALID, Asimi Ana AHMAD, Tau Len-Kelly YONG
Carbon fiber is a well-established high value-added material. However, its price is considerably high. Lignin obtained from oil palm frond (OPF) is a compatible precursor for carbon fiber production. This study aims to determine the feasibility of OPF lignin obtained under subcritical phenol conditions by focusing on its fundamental properties (purity and particulate matter content) as a precursor for carbon fiber production. This study also focuses on the effect of temperature (260–300 °C), time (5–30 min), and solid loading (6 and 10 g) on these properties. From the results obtained, the highest lignin purity of 95.1% was obtained at 260 °C, 5 min, and 10 g solid loading. Meanwhile, the lowest particulate content of 15.6% was obtained at 300 °C, 30 min, and 6 g solid loading. It can be further concluded that at higher temperature and longer reaction time, the low molecular weight compounds are dissolved in the liquid product, resulting in a decrease in the lignin purity as well as the particulate matter content.
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