Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy
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ONLINE ISSN: 1882-6121
PRINT ISSN: 0916-8753

Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy Vol. 100 (2021), No. 8

  • Investigation of Nanostructured CaO-ZnO Solid Solutions by X-ray Diffraction

    pp. 92-96

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.92

    Nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile material with a wide range of applications ranging from nutrition to light-emitting devices, and doping of ZnO with calcium (Ca) may improve its performance. However, there is only a limited understanding of the crystalline properties of nanostructured CaO-ZnO systems. Here, nanostructured Ca-doped ZnO was produced by flame spray pyrolysis and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No Ca-Zn oxide phase with specific stoichiometry was formed, but an increase in the ZnO unit cell parameters was observed with increased Ca content. Using Vegard’s law, approximately 2.8 at% Ca was incorporated substitutionally for Zn in nano-ZnO, in agreement with solubility limits reported for bulk ZnO. These results indicate that there is no specific particle size effect for the formation of CaOZnO solid solutions. This Ca incorporation inside the ZnO wurtzite structure resulted in a transformation from slightly elongated to more spherical crystals, as indicated by the ZnO aspect ratio and TEM images.
  • Decomposition of Methylene Blue Adsorbed on Zeolite by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    pp. 97-101

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.97

    In this study, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used to decompose methylene blue (MB) adsorbed on pellet-shaped zeolite, and zeolite was reused as an adsorbent. The DBD treatment was performed in air under atmospheric pressure. The effect of plasma treatment on the zeolite structure was investigated. The effect of DBD treatment was evaluated by the amount of MB adsorbed on the zeolite and the Total organic carbon (TOC) of the solution in the repeated adsorption test. When the plasma-treated zeolite was added to pure water, some substances desorbed from the zeolite, and as a result of NMR analysis, it was found that the substance does not have a benzene ring structure. The results showed that the methylene blue adsorbed on the zeolite was decomposed into a low molecule without a benzene ring by the DBD treatment, and it was desorbed during the next adsorption cycle, so that the adsorption site was recovered while maintaining the structure of the zeolite.
  • An Experimental and Thermodynamic Equilibrium Analysis on the Leaching Process of Arsenic (As) from Coal Fly Ash

    pp. 102-109

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.102

    The leaching process of arsenic (As) from coal fly ash collected from the coal-fired power plant in Japan was investigated with six different kind of paper sludge ashes (PS ash XA, XB, XC, YA, YB, and YC) as an inhibitor and their mass addition ratio 0 to 30%. To study the arsenic leaching mechanism, thermodynamic calculation (FactSage 7.2) was used to predict the possible As-bearing compounds in the fly ash and its distribution during the combustion and leaching process. The results indicated AlAsO4(s) was the most probable species resulting compound from arsenic interaction with fly ash components under the combustion process. PS ash YB containing the highest calcium content shows a considerable immobilization ability for arsenic due to arsenic reaction with calcium compound in the leaching process. CaO in PS ash generates high pH leachate during the leaching process and promotes calcium with arsenic to form a precipitate. The arsenic leaching ratio by thermodynamic calculation and experimental, again PS ah YB, shows the best effect in the arsenic leaching concentration with addition ratio in the range 15-30%. It was found that the arsenic fixation capacity of PS ash increases as the calcium content in PS ash increases because the chemical reaction between calcium compounds and arsenic is accelerated during the leaching process. Predicting arsenic species based on the combustion and leaching process will be useful to choose the best available control technology to minimize the effect of arsenic into the environment.
  • Pseudo Continuous Reactor with Microwave-plasma for Preparation of High Surface Area Activated Carbon

    pp. 110-115

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.110

    A new activation method using a pseudo continuous reactor with microwave-induced plasma is examined to prepare activated carbon. Carbonized carbon gel is mixed with potassium hydroxide before being activated by microwave irradiation. The specific surface area of the product is investigated by varying microwave-retention time. The results show that the activated carbon with specific surface area of 3,054 m2 g-1 and total pore volume of 1.35 cm3 g-1 can be obtained within 510 s, although hour-level time is necessary to obtain similar activated carbon if conventional methods are used. Temperature change of the carbon precursor caused by microwave irradiation was measured in batch mode to estimate the temperature at pseudo continuous system based on the retention time. It was found that the retention time to reach 700 °C of the carbon precursor can be essential factor to achieve high surface area and large pore volume. In addition, the activated carbon synthesized by the proposed method can show an average mass yield percentage of 24.2%, which is much higher than that from conventional methods, 4.5-5.0%. Based on the influence of the microwave retention time, reaction mechanism is discussed. The fast rate and high yield shown here should contribute to energy-saving process.
  • Impact of Increased Tire Pressure on Fuel Consumption and Environment for Fuel-Cell-Assisted Shared Bicycles

    pp. 116-121

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.116

    This study evaluated the use of a fuel-cell-assisted bicycle (H-bike) in bicycle sharing. Two pertinent issues arise. First, the number of start-stops and distance traveled lead to power consumption levels so high that they exceed those of households. Second, the H-bikes are 3 kg heavier than conventional bicycles. Reduction in rolling resistance due to increased tire pressures may afford a solution to these problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether increasing the tire pressure can reduce the amount of energy consumed and eliminate the impact of increased weight. Energy consumption was evaluated with a bicycle-riding experiment; the net impact of increased weight on energy consumption and the environment following the spike in tire pressure was assessed. Life-cycle assessment was performed using the CML model to estimate the abiotic resource depletion potential (ADP) and the global warming potential (GWP). Results showed that increasing the tire pressure reduced fuel consumption in bicycle-sharing systems by more than 10%. The 3-kg weight gain did not affect energy consumption, and the ADP and GWP were approximately 10% and 20% lower for the H-bike. Thus, H-bikes have more environmental benefits than conventional bicycles, and considering tire pressure in bicycle sharing makes sense.
  • Characterization of Coconut Jelly Pellets Made from Solid Waste of Ready-to-drink Industry

    pp. 122-126

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.122

    Coconut jelly, the solid waste from ready-to-drink industry, was used to produce solid fuel pellets. Pelletization was done by a single 10-ton hydraulic press unit without any binders. The characteristics of the pelletized fuel including pellet dimensions, bulk density, pellet density, proximate analysis, higher heating value, energy density, combustion rate, heat release rate, compressive strength and durability were investigated. The pellets had an average diameter and length of 10 mm. Pelletization significantly increased the bulk density from 30 kg/m3 of the original coconut jelly and 70 kg/m3 of ground dried coconut jelly to 659 kg/m3 of the pellets. Proximate analysis values of pellets (moisture 8.05 wt%, ash 2.06 wt%, volatile matter 77.04 wt% and fixed carbon 12.85 wt%) indicated good combustion parameters. The higher heating value of the pellets was 15.995 MJ/kg, which increased by 19.05% from its original form. The pellet density was 1,100 kg/m3 and the resulting energy density was 17.59 GJ/m3. The fuel pellets also increased the combustion rate and heat release rate from 0.05 to 0.17 g/min and 672 to 2,719 J/min, respectively, when compared with the original form. The pellets had a high durability (98 wt%) and high compressive strength in horizontal direction (4.84 MPa). Overall, the properties of coconut jelly pellets meet the requirements of Thai and European standards of the pellet properties for non-woody materials. Thus, coconut jelly waste could be considered as a potential raw material to manufacture pellets as an alternative energy source.
  • Enhancement of Lipid Production by Euglena gracilis Using Vanillin as a Growth Stimulant

    pp. 127-134

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.127

    Euglena gracilis which could produce valuable metabolites is considered as promising feedstock for various industrial applications. Growth stimulation of microalgae culture with additives are cost-effective and simple approach to improve its productivity. Effect of vanillin, one of the most abundant phenolic compounds from lignocellulosic hydrolysate to E. gracilis was investigated. Vanillin showed hormesis effect to E. gracilis, growth promotion at lower concentration but inhibition at higher concentration. At optimal dosage of 10 mg/L vanillin, the biomass production of E. gracilis was enhanced by 36.5% and metabolites content such as chlorophyll, carotenoids also increased. From the high throughput analysis using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, total lipid production will be simultaneously enhanced without sacrificing cell growth.
  • Nanocellulose Preparation from Cassava Bagasse via Hydrolysis by Sulfuric Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide Medium

    pp. 135-143

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.135

    The novel and facile multi-stage method was used for the preparation of nanocellulose from cassava bagasse in Vietnam. Firstly, the cassava bagasse was treated with sodium hydroxide solution followed by chlorine dioxide bleaching for obtaining cellulose pulp with a brightness of 82% ISO. Secondly, the obtained bleached cellulosic pulp was achieved with a dilute sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide followed by purification and refining for obtaining nanocellulose. The following optimal conditions of the acidic treatment with adding of hydrogen peroxide for isolation of nanocellulose were proposed: concentration of hydrogen peroxide 0.1 wt.%, the concentration of sulfuric acid 0.25 wt. %, liquor to cellulose ratio 20 to 1, temperature 110 °C, time 100 min. The characteristics of nanocellulose were studied by SEM, FTIR, and XRD.
  • Effect of Depth of Discharge on the Performance of Zn-Mn and Zn-Ni Battery

    pp. 144-151

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.144

    In this communication, the zinc anode electrode was prepared by electroplating. MnO2 cathodes and Ni(OH)2 cathode electrodes were prepared by the pressing process. KOH 6 M with 40%ZnO were used as the electrolyte solution of a battery. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to study the complexation of cathode electrodes. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed some peaks which ascertain chemical interlinking of ZnMnO2 and Zn-Ni(OH)2 on cathode electrodes. After performance testing, morphology characterization of zinc anode electrode was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrodes were tested for performance by a battery analyzer for 100 cycles with a depth of discharge (DOD) at 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80%. It was found that zinc electrodes had branching of a dendrite, which quickly grew at a high depth of discharge. The depth of discharge influenced dendrite growth and the battery performance during cell discharging at high DOD. The Zn anode was damaged due to the excessive dissolution of Zn+ in the electrolyte, causing the decay of the Zn anode. On the other hand, during cell charging, Zn+ was not uniformly deposited on the anode, resulting in dendrite branching. Zinc electrode in Zn-MnO2 cell had more dendrite than zinc electrode in Zn-Ni(OH)2 cell at 10%DOD. The results also showed higher efficiency of 99.08% and better stability for Zn-Ni(OH)2 than Zn-MnO2 cells in similar conditions. This was due to the fact that during cell discharge. Mn+ in the electrolyte continuously reacts with Zn+ to form other complex compounds. On the contrary, Ni(OH)2 cathode exhibited better recyclability than MnO2 cathode. Therefore, Ni(OH)2 cathode offers excellent potential for use as a cathode electrode because it can be used at high DOD. Another advantage of Ni(OH)2 cathode is that it can be prepared from a simple process by making use of readily available non-toxic materials.
  • Optimization of Bio-Hydrogenated Gasoline Production from Rice Bran Oil via Catalytic Hydrocracking over Pd/Al2O3 Catalyst

    pp. 152-161

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.152

    This work aims to study biofuel production from rice bran oil (RBO) using a hydrocracking reaction over 0.5%Pd/Al 2O3 catalyst. The Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to find optimal bio-hydrogenated gasoline (BHG) production conditions. The effects of pressure and temperature, including the interaction of the parameters under the constant liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), were determined by the statistical methodology of surface response (RSM). The yields of liquid biofuel products and BHG, as well as BHG selectivity, were used as response values for optimizing BHG production. The results remarkably showed that pressure and temperature significantly influenced BHG production in terms of yield and selectivity. The optimal condition for BHG production was found to be at 516 °C and 4.8 MPa, with the BHG yield of 44.21%. However, the optimal BHG selectivity was found to be at 532 °C and 4.4 MPa with a selectivity of 69.74%. Moreover, temperature appeared to be a more dominant parameter on biofuel product yield than the pressure. This parameter had greater effects on both linear and square terms in ANOVA analysis of the biofuel product yield. Furthermore, hydrocracking was discovered to improve the heat of combustion of BHG as compared with the initial feedstock and commercial gasoline. The total acid value of BHG was also found to increase because the reaction could break the ester bond between glycerol and carboxyl groups; thus, free fatty acids were formed, causing the high value of total acid in the sample.
  • Guest editors for Special articles: JCREN

    p. GEJCREN_1

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.GEJCREN_1

    Shuhei INOUE (Hiroshima University), Shigeki SAWAYAMA (Kyoto University), Shinfuku NOMURA (EHIME University), and Shinichi NAMBA (Hiroshima University)
  • Tableof Contents (in English)

    p. Tce8_1

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.Tce8_1

  • Tableof Contents (in Japanese)

    p. Tcj8_1

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    DOI:10.3775/jie.100.Tcj8_1

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