ISIJ International
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ONLINE ISSN: 1347-5460
PRINT ISSN: 0915-1559

ISIJ International Vol. 31 (1991), No. 6

  • A Review on Theoretical Analyses of Rolling in Europe

    pp. 525-538

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.525

    A review of works on modelling of hot and cold rolling in the European area during the last few years is presented. First, the mechanical and mathematical features of the papers reviewed are presented (rheological assumptions; friction law and contact treatment; time integration schemes; thermomechanical coupling; methods of solutions). Then the results obtained by the various research groups are presented. First hot rolling is investigated; the major problems addressed are then product geometry and thermal evolution with some applications to metallurgical evolution. Finally, papers about cold strip rolling are discussed; these mainly analyze elastic roll deformation (flattening by plane strain approaches, 3D roll bending studies) and its consequences on strip profile and flatness.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Two-dimensional Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Flat Rolling Using Rigid-plastic Finite Element Method ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    2. Recent Progress of Rolling Technologies in Japan ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    3. Characteristics of Rolling in a Continuous Billet Mill with Drive-free Vertical Rolls ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
  • Recent Progress of Rolling Technologies in Japan

    pp. 539-542

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.539

    After the Plaza Agreement of G5, which was held in September 1985, the Yen was highly appreciated, and the Japanese government changed its policy from the encouragement of exports to the expansion of the domestic market. Fortunately, the government policy has been a success, and the production of hot and cold strip, large wide flange beam, wire and rod has recovered. Investment for equipment is under way and there are plans for renewing mills. However, the steel tube mills are highly dependent on the foreign market, the production of steel tube was drastically cut due to the sharp drop of the dollar and sharp rise of the yen. Nevertheless, research and development has been actively promoted and many marvelous results have been reported in every field. Iron and steel industries in Japan are still confident and innovative.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Relation between Camber and Wedge in Flat Rolling under Restrictions of Lateral Movement ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    2. A Review on Theoretical Analyses of Rolling in Europe ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    3. Characteristics of Rolling in a Continuous Billet Mill with Drive-free Vertical Rolls ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
  • Application of Boundary Element Method to Rolling Technology with Special Respect to Flatness and Crown of Plate and Sheet

    pp. 543-549

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.543

    This article introduces the concept and formulation of the boundary element method, and its application to rolling technology with special respect to the flatness problem in flat rolling. The possibility of utilization of the boundary element method in the inverse analysis is also discussed, and the residual stress analysis in the rolled sheet and estimation of the rolling pressure distribution along the width direction are presented as numerical examples. With use of the boundary element methods the effect of the ratio of sheet width to barrel length is discussed. With increase in the ratio, the crown of the rolled sheet decreases. The effect of the roll bending force on the tension distribution in the rolled sheet is also simulated.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Prediction of Bainite Start Temperature in Alloy Steels with Different Grain Sizes ISIJ International Vol.54(2014), No.4
    2. An Improved Model for Camber Generation during Rough Rolling Process ISIJ International Vol.55(2015), No.9
    3. Spray Deposition Method and Its Application to the Production of Mill Rolls ISIJ International Vol.30(1990), No.9
  • 2-Dimensional Lateral-Material-Flow Model Reduced from 3-Dimensional Theory for Flat Rolling

    pp. 550-558

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.550

    The present generalized 2-D theory aims at the analysis of 3-D deformation relating to shape and crown phenomena and the width broadening in flat rolling. The equation system is derived by de-coupling the lateral and longitudinal equilibrium equations in the rigorous 3-D theory. The longitudinal equilibrium equation is reduced to the plane strain rolling theory and the lateral one to a simple ordinary differential equation. The approximations employed in the derivation of these are well supported by the 3-D analysis. The resulting model not only agrees with a variety of experiments, but also helps us to have an overview on the behavior of material deformation, including the mechanism of the pressure hill in the lateral direction, and the width broadening, in relation with the thickness distribution.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Prediction of Bainite Start Temperature in Alloy Steels with Different Grain Sizes ISIJ International Vol.54(2014), No.4
    2. An Improved Model for Camber Generation during Rough Rolling Process ISIJ International Vol.55(2015), No.9
    3. Spray Deposition Method and Its Application to the Production of Mill Rolls ISIJ International Vol.30(1990), No.9
  • 3-dimensional Analysis of Flat Rolling by Rigid-plastic FEM Considering Sticking and Slipping Frictional Boundary

    pp. 559-565

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.559

    A rigid-plastic finite element analysis was performed for flat rolling. In this analysis, both slipping based on the Coulomb's friction law and sticking were taken into account for the boundary condition between the roll and the material undergoing deformation. In the two-dimensional flat rolling analysis, the rigid-plastic finite element method provided reasonable results of the frictional boundary condition, which corresponded well with those obtained by the elastic-plastic finite element method. This analysis method was extended to the three-dimensional flat rolling analysis. The sticking area around the neutral line, and the slipping area around that sticking area where the relative slipping velocity vector diverges from the sticking area were calculated on the boundary surface. When the width/thickness ratio of the slab was small, the sticking area decreased in width direction and the relative slipping velocity in the width direction increased. These calculated results agreed well with commonly held knowledge.
  • Two-dimensional Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Flat Rolling Using Rigid-plastic Finite Element Method

    pp. 566-570

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.566

    A finite element code for two dimensional steady-state thermal analysis has been developed, and combining it with a rigid-plastic finite element code for steady-state deformation analysis, the thermo-mechanical analysis of hot rolling of flat products was conducted for plate rolling and hot strip rolling conditions. The importance of the thermo-mechanical analysis was discussed based on the results of the computation. Through the present work it was concluded that thermo-mechanical analysis is indispensable for the precise estimation of stress and strain distributions in the roll-bite.
  • An Integrated Mathematical Simulation of Temperatures, Rolling Loads and Metallurgical Properties in Hot Strip Mills

    pp. 571-576

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.571

    An integrated mathematical simulator for hot strip mills has been developed. This Hot integrated Mathematical Simulator (HIMS) can estimate simultaneously temperatures of rolled material and roll, rolling loads such as rolling force and torque, and metallurgical properties of rolled material from the exit of reheating furnace to the coiler. The HIMS consists of three simulators of Temperature, Rolling and Metallurgy, and it takes coupling relations between the above three simulators into consideration to obtain accurate results. (1) The Temperature Simulator is used for calculating the temperature changes of rolled material and roll. (2) The Rolling Simulator is used for calculating the force, the torque, the motor power, the deformation resistance, the strain distribution in the thickness direction, etc. during rolling. (3) The Metallurgy Simulator is used for calculating changes of austenite (γ) grain size and phase transformation, and mechanical properties such as yield strength (Y.S.), tensile strength (T.S.), elongation (El.) and Vickers hardness (Hv) at room temperature. At present, the HIMS is used as an effective tool for solving various problems of hot strip mills, because its application field is very wide.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Shape Controllability in New 6-High Mill (UC-4 Mill) with Small Diameter Work Rolls ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    2. Prediction of Bainite Start Temperature in Alloy Steels with Different Grain Sizes ISIJ International Vol.54(2014), No.4
    3. An Improved Model for Camber Generation during Rough Rolling Process ISIJ International Vol.55(2015), No.9
  • A Numerical Simulation of Forming Processes for Semi-solid Materials

    pp. 577-582

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.577

    A finite element method to analyze the forming of semi-solid materials is presented, where a compressible viscoplastic constitutive model is introduced in the averaged solid phase, and Darcy's law is employed for the liquid flow in the interdendritic space. The method is applied to typical forming processes such as extrusion, forging, and rolling. The densification and the lquid flow are investigated for various parameters of material properties and forming conditions.
  • Relation between Camber and Wedge in Flat Rolling under Restrictions of Lateral Movement

    pp. 583-587

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.583

    In hot strip rolling, the curvature of the camber varies longitudinally along the strip, and seems to be caused by restriction of the lateral movement of the strip. Rough rolling is carried out under restriction of the lateral movement by edgers, and finish rolling is carried out under the restriction by front and/or back tensions. The relations between wedge and camber in flat rolling restricted by edgers and rolling tensions were investigated by laboratory rolling tests and analyses.
    In the middle portion of a strip where edge rolling and flat rolling are conducted simultaneously, the curvature of the camber is noticeably smaller than that in the head portion of the strip. In the finish train, the ratio of camber strain change to wedge strain change in the middle portion of a strip, where both front and back tensions are applied, is the smallest. But the flatness of the strip becomes distorted. It seems very difficult to reduce both camber and wedge simultaneously. Therefore, the camber and the wedge should be mainly controlled in the rougher train within a certain small level.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Recent Progress of Rolling Technologies in Japan ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    2. Shape Controllability in New 6-High Mill (UC-4 Mill) with Small Diameter Work Rolls ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    3. Finite Element Investigation for Edge Wave Prediction in Hot Rolled Steel during Run Out Table Cooling ISIJ International Vol.54(2014), No.7
  • Development of On-line Roll Grinding System for Hot Strip Mill

    pp. 588-593

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.588

    Schedule Free-Rolling (SFR), which means rolling with unrestricted rolling schedules in the processing of strips of various materials and widths, should be developed to realize hot-charge-rolling and hot-direct-rolling whose importance has been increasing in hot strip rolling mills. As a technique to make SFR practical, we have developed a non-driven cup type On-line Roll Grinder (ORG) which smooths the wear of a work roll on line. Our experiments have proven that the ORG has the basic capabilities required for an on-line roll grinder: high grinding capacity, long grinding wheel life and appropriate roughness of the finished surface. In addition, the ORG is free of welding and dulling and maintains stable grinding characteristics for a long time. We have also developed an on-line roll grinding system equipped with an On-line roll Profile Meter which can measure the profile of a revolving roll without contact. The data taken by these profile meters is fed back to the ORG, thereby increasing its grinding accuracy and allowing it to grind a roll to the required profile.
  • Shape Controllability in New 6-High Mill (UC-4 Mill) with Small Diameter Work Rolls

    pp. 594-598

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.594

    The work roll diameter of a new 6-high mill (UC-4 mill) is as small as that of cluster type mills. Shape control flexibility and the ability to roll flat strips in the UC-4 mill were examined experimentally and analytically, and it was found that the mill was suitable for thin strip rolling of stainless steel or other hard materials. The roll configuration of the UC-4 mill is asymmetrical in the longitudinal direction. Effects of this asymmetricity on shape control characteristics were also studied, and it was found that the shape controllability did not change with rolling direction. A cross buckle becomes a problem when thin and hard strips are rolled with small diameter work rolls. In the UC-4 mill, however, the occurrence of cross buckles did not increase despite of the smallness of the work roll diameter. Three actual plants are presently in production.
  • Prediction of Flatness of Fine Gauge Strip Rolled by 12-high Cluster Mill

    pp. 599-606

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.599

    A mathematical model for predicting flatness of fine gauge strip after rolling is established. The model is able to obtain the soultion for the roll-kiss rolling by way of matrix computation, and it is designed to analyze any type of strip rolling mill. Flatness control capability of a 12-high cluster mill during the roll-kiss rolling is investigated using the present model. The investigation reaches the following conclusions. (1) The effect of work roll bending force on strip flatness is extremely small. (2) Intermediate roll shift is effective when tapered portion is shifted into the material width. However, without taper the effect of intermediate roll shift on the strip flatness is marginal. (3) Both back-up roll crown adjust and intermediate roll bending force are effective for flatness control.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. An Improved Model for Camber Generation during Rough Rolling Process ISIJ International Vol.55(2015), No.9
    2. Prediction of Bainite Start Temperature in Alloy Steels with Different Grain Sizes ISIJ International Vol.54(2014), No.4
    3. Spray Deposition Method and Its Application to the Production of Mill Rolls ISIJ International Vol.30(1990), No.9
  • Shape Controllability for Quarter Buckles of Strip in 20-high Sendzimir Mills

    pp. 607-613

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.607

    A simulation model for predicting the shapes of cold-rolled strips in 20-high Sendzimir mills was developed, and its predicting accuracy was assessed experimentally. By this model, improvement of quarter buckles was shown difficult merely by conventional shape control actuators, i.e., lateral shifts and taper profiles of first intermediate rolls, roll crowns of work rolls and second intermediate rolls, and crown adjustment of back-up rolls. It was shown that quarter buckles could be effectively corrected by giving a concave profile partially to the first intermediate rolls.
  • Characteristics of Rolling in a Continuous Billet Mill with Drive-free Vertical Rolls

    pp. 614-619

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.614

    A compact continuous billet mill with an arrangement of H-V-H stands, where the vertical stands are drive-free was developed. In this continuous billet mill, materials are pushed into the non-driven vertical stands by the upstream driven horizontal stands and are then pulled out by the downstream driven horizontal stands. In order to adopt this type of mill as a commercial mill, it is necessary to investigate phenomena such as buckling between stands, slip in the driven horizontal stands and the dimensional fluctuation in rolled material due to inter-stand tension or compression and to clarify the adequate rolling conditions. Therefore, characteristics of rolling in a continuous billet mill with drive-free vertical rolls were investigated through experiments to determine the rolling conditions. The results are promising. The reduction in thickness of rolled material at non-driven vertical stands was almost the same as that at driven horizontal stands and amounted to 23 % under the most adequate rolling conditions. Then it was shown that the variation in inter-stand tension or compression is less than 23 N/mm2, and that the dimensional fluctuation in rolled material is within 6.6 % of width and 1.1 % of thickness. As a result, it was concluded that this type of mill could be used as continuous billet mills or as roughing train in a bar mill.
  • Development and Features of Rotary Reduction Mill

    pp. 620-627

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.620

    A new type of rotary mill, which can reduce solid metallic materials efficiently in a one-pass operation, has been developed. This mill is characterized by the following: (1) Three cone-type rolls are arranged around the pass line. (2) The axis of roll is inclined or inclinable by cross angle as well as feed angle; the cross angle is positive and the feed angle can be set large. (3) Both ends of the roll are supported. Detailed research work on the characteristics of the Rotary Reduction Mill was carried out. First, the principle of the rotary reduction process is discussed. Second, the engineering features of the Rotary Reduction Mill are presented. Third, the dimensional accuracy and surface qualities of rolled bars are described. Finally, the mechanical properties of bars rolled by the Rotary Reduction Mill are described in detail.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Characteristics of Rolling in a Continuous Billet Mill with Drive-free Vertical Rolls ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    2. 2-Dimensional Lateral-Material-Flow Model Reduced from 3-Dimensional Theory for Flat Rolling ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    3. Recent Progress of Rolling Technologies in Japan ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
  • Development of Manufacturing Technology for Electric Resistance Welded Steel Pipes with Ultra-heavy Wall Thickness

    pp. 628-634

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.628

    NKK has developed new manufacturing techniques to meet the increasing need for electric resistance welded (ERW) steel pipe with heavier wall thickness and higher quality. These new advances overcome problems encountered with conventional ERW methods by incorporating new technology in forming, welding, quality assurance, and other processes. This has enabled the production of high quality electric resistance welded steel pipe with ultra-heavy wall thicknesses in a wide range of sizes. The new advances that comprise this manufacturing technology are presented in this report.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Development of New Hot-welded Steel Pipe-making Process ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    2. Recent Trend of Roll Forming Technology for ERW Pipes Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.77(1991), No.5
    3. STUDIES ON THE ROLLING OF SEAMLESS STEEL TUBE (II) Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.44(1958), No.1
  • Development of New Hot-welded Steel Pipe-making Process

    pp. 635-639

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.635

    A new pipe making process was put into operation at the Kashima Steel Works in 1985. The features of this new pipe-making process are 1) high-temperature welding by use of a high-frequency induction welder, 2) removal of weld bead automatically by use of a specially designed bead-cutting tool just after welding and 3) continuous reheating in the reheating furnace in preparation for the next process, namely stretch reducing.
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    Readers Who Read This Article Also Read

    1. Development of Manufacturing Technology for Electric Resistance Welded Steel Pipes with Ultra-heavy Wall Thickness ISIJ International Vol.31(1991), No.6
    2. Recent Trend of Roll Forming Technology for ERW Pipes Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.77(1991), No.5
    3. STUDIES ON THE ROLLING OF SEAMLESS STEEL TUBE (II) Tetsu-to-Hagané Vol.44(1958), No.1
  • Development of Rib Plate Manufacturing Technique

    pp. 640-646

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.640

    The use of concrete-filled, ribbed steel tubular columns has been increasing gradually in construction work. These columns offer high strength and stiffness, in addition to advantages in construction work, such as the elimination of formwork. The demand for integral rib plates in these concrete-filled, tubular columns will increase as more high-rise buildings are built in the future. This report presents a technique for manufacturing rib plate using multi-pass rolling. This technique was established by rolling rib plates on a trial basis using a plate mill at NKK's Fukuyama Works, after experiments on rib formation using lead and hot-rolled carbon steel. To assure the required rib shape and to prevent lap defects and distortion from rolling, the rolling pass schedule was established by combining the optimum rolling reduction in each pass with shape control using work roll shift and work roll bender technology. This technique enabled the efficient production of well formed rib plates by the multi-pass rolling method.
  • Development of Nonferrous Clad Plate and Sheet by Warm Rolling with Different Temperature of Materials

    pp. 647-654

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.647

    Clad materials are more useful than uniform materials in many cases since they have characteristics of both materials. Aluminum is characterized by low density, high thermal conductivity and low electrical resistivity. When combined with carbon steel, stainless steel or titanium, aluminum clad plate and sheet are created. Basic studies were carried out on a mill model. First, aluminum clad steel plate was developed by the method of warm rolling where materials were heated to different temperatures and then bonding conditions were made clear. Aluminum plate was heated and layered on steel plate which was at room temperature, and finally rolled without welding. Second, stainless steel clad aluminum sheet was developed by warm rolling method where both materials were heated to the same temperature. Titanium clad aluminum sheet was treated in the same way as aluminum clad steel plate, and bonding conditions were made clear. Last, wide plate and sheet were manufactured in the mill and characteristics of these products were made clear.
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  • Mechanical Properties of Uniaxially and Biaxially Rolled Polymer Sheets

    pp. 655-660

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    DOI:10.2355/isijinternational.31.655

    Thick sheets of polypropylene and polyethylene were rolled uniaxially and also biaxially at from 100 to 140°C. Moreover, the effects of rolling elongation on the tensile strength, Young's modulus, molecular orientation and degree of crystallinity were investigated in order to obtain thick sheets of polypropylene and polyethylene which have large tensile strength, high Young's modulus and small anisotropy of these properties. The tensile strength of the rolled polypropylene sheet, initially elongated by 5.0 in L-direction and then elongated by 1.5 in C-direction, reached almost 100 N/mm2, and the value was three times as large as that of the stock in all directions in the plane. This combination of the first rolling elongation λ1=5.0 and the second rolling elongation λ2=1.5 is the condition to get substantially the same rolling elongation in both L- and C-directions because the uniaxially rolled sheets become thicker by shrinking when reheated for biaxial rolling and the substantial second rolling elongation is larger than 1.5. The tendency of molecular orientation corresponds with the tensile strength characteristics of uniaxially and biaxially rolled sheets. Degree of crystallinity of the rolled sheets decreases with increasing rolling elongation.

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